I often wonder about think tanks that completely miss out on emergent LENR energy. Take for instance the Centre for European Policy Studies, out of Brussels, Belgium. A search of their sites, on this date 2/20/2016, for LENR or cold fusion led to nothing! Zip! Nada! Totally clueless!
Consider this, “the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) is a leading think tank and forum for debate on EU affairs, with an exceptionally strong in-house research capacity and an extensive network of partner institutes throughout the world”. If I know about emergent LENR energy, some of the folks at CEPS most likely do too. Just in case they don’t, today 2/20/2016, I sent this message to these kind and loving folks in Belgium.
(isabelle.tenaerts ceps.eu, monica.alessi ceps.eu, fabio.genoese ceps.eu, milan.elkerbout ceps.eu, andrei.marcu ceps.eu, jj.vandeberg skynet.be, Paul.Verstraeten telenet.be, Achiel.VanCauwenberghe ugent.be, info vrwi.be, FU.US universityfoundation.be)
Mystery or Knot Science
Is a Knot Intertwining
Is an Art Unraveling
Love is a Life Learning
Love is a Lattice Vibration
Love is a Source Energizing
Love is a World Operation
Love is the earth. We Birth from
Love is the air. We Breathe of
Love is the fire. We Live with
Love is the water. We Drink in
Art of Love of Science
Rite of Well Being
Essence of Spirit
The be all
Founded in Brussels in 1983, CEPS is distinguished by its:
- extensive network of highly reputable partner institutes throughout the world
- multidisciplinary, multinational and multicultural research team of around 50 analysts
- broad membership base of 139 Corporate and 93 Institutional Members, which provide expertise and act as a sounding board for the feasibility of CEPS’ policy proposals and
- privileged contacts with decision-makers at the European and national level
In-house research programmes:
- Economic and Social Welfare Policies
- Financial Markets and Institutions
- Energy and Climate Change
- EU Foreign Policy
- Justice and Home Affairs
- Politics and Institutions
- Regulatory Affairs
- Food Security and Development
Independent research institutes managed in house by CEPS
- European Capital Markets Institute (ECMI)
- European Credit Research Institute (ECRI)
Europe-wide research networks organised by CEPS
- European Climate Platform (ECP)
- European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes (ENEPRI)
- European Policy Institutes Network (EPIN)
Cold Fusion 1989
From the beginning Belgium has taken a unique stance in regards to cold fusion research. In 1991, the Belgium Ministry of Defence sequestered a series of technologically advanced (dry cell) cold fusion patents (filed in 1989) and all related research papers. If Joannes Van Den Boagert had violated that order, by continuing his research or sharing it with others, he would have been charged with treason. What justified this suppressive act against the scientific method? What were they afraid of or hoping to gain?
Thanks to E-Cat Site Scientific we have a copy of the letter, from the Belgian Ministry of Defence, informing Joannes Van Den Boagert that his cold fusion patents and research has been sequestered.
Here is the E-Cat Scientific site post in its' entirety.
I have the honour of informing you that the demand for a Belgian patent filed on 21/4/1989 under the application number 08900444 is the object of an inquiry of the Ministry of Defense by application of article 4 of the law of January 10, 1955 concerning the publication and application of inventions and factory secrets regarding the defense of the territory or the security of the State.
In accordance of article 5 item 1 of said law, it is forbidden to you from now on, except for explicit permission, the invention for which you have filed a patent application to publish its contents and especially to file a patent application in a foreign country or to assign a licence.
The grant of a Belgian patent or the possible transfer of the patent application to the European Patent Office or International Office of the World Organization for Intellectual Property will be postponed or retarded if such is necessary in view of the examination of the Ministry of Defense.
You will, as fast as possible, be informed of the decision that will be taken in consensus by the ministers of Economic Affairs and of State Defense what kind of measures will be taken – or will not be taken – provided by articles 2 and 3 of the law of January 10, 1955 depending the case, such at last:
- six months taken from the filing date of the application, when it concerns an application for a Belgian patent, or
- before the expiration of a period of four months taken from the filing date of the application when such concerns the filing of a European patent, or
- before the expiration of the thirteenth month taken from the date of filing when such concerns an international patent application according to the Treaty of Cooperation for Patents (PCT).
The authorized civil servant,
While the letter states time periods of 6 months and 13 months wherein the patent could be prohibited from publication, license and disclosure, the actual period was over 2 years! BE1002780 and BE1002781 were not published until June 4, 1991 and BE1003296 was not published until February 18, 1992.
So, blocked by the Belgian government at the outset, and then lost to obscurity over time because “cold fusion” had become discredited thoroughly by 1991, and the applications and patents was never published in English, these works were lost to in time so to speak…until now.
- end E-Cat Site Scientific post
Simple Definition of Defence
- the act of defending someone or something from attack
- something that is used to protect yourself, your country, etc.
- the act of speaking or writing in support of someone or something that is being attacked or criticized
Simple Definition of Suppressive
- to put an end to the activities of (a person, body of persons, etc.)
- to do away with by, as by authority; abolish; stop (a practice, custom)
- to withhold disclosure or publication (truth, evidence, a book, names)
Read more at “Belgian LANR Patents” E-Cat World
Emergent LENR energy is about to make history. This will be the catalyst that causes professional historians and investigative journalists to research every detail of cold fusion’s interesting, yet often troubled, past.
- Why did the Belgium Ministry of Defence sequester technologically advanced cold fusion/LENR patents and research papers?
- What affect would these cold fusion patents and related scientific papers have had, on the advancement of the art, if they had reached the cold fusion scientific community and media in 1989?
- How do these early Belgian cold fusion patents compare to advanced LENR patents emergent today?
- What was the state of U.S. and Belgium relations in 1989?
- What role, if any, did the U.S. have in the decision to sequester Joannes Van Den Boagert’s patents?
- Did the Belgium Ministry of Defence share Joannes Van Den Boagert’s works with the United States Department of Defense leading to their experimenting with dry cells and metals that are present on a carrier material, e.g. are present on vapour deposited form (thin film co-deposition)?
Context for pondering answers to these questions, the stage set so to speak, is provided by a bit of study...
Please read “Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Using Pd/D Co-Deposition” TECHNICAL REPORT · OCTOBER 2015 DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.1200.3281
It can be downloaded here:
World War One, World War Two, the first atomic bomb, the Cold War, Frank Carlucci in Belgian Congo, U.S. nuclear weapon sharing, NATO Strategic Defence Headquarters, the fall of the Berlin Wall, British and Exxon Mobile European oil production, and Belgium Nuclear power all point to the historical importance of, and provide insight into, the state of U.S/Belgium affairs in 1989.
The name ‘Belgium’ is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.
Belgium nestles into the German border and from as early as the 16th century the country has been a battleground for European powers. From the Battle of Waterloo to the Battle of the Bulge, Belgium has earned the title the “Battlefield of Europe”.
In the post-war era Belgium’s location has worked to its advantage. Belgium is no longer an insignificant little nation to be used as a convenient battleground. Since the founding of the European Community in 1958, Brussels has effectively become the de facto capital of the European Union and the regular meeting place of the European Council Heads of Government.
The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom, is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement.
However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the military power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism, so talks for a new military alliance began almost immediately resulting in the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949.
Belgium remains a strong proponent of NATO. It cooperates closely with the United States within the alliance framework, in addition to supporting European defense efforts through the Western European Union (WEU). Both NATO (since 1966) and the EU have their headquarters in Brussels; SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe) is in the south of the country, near Mons. Since January 1993, the WEU has been headquartered in Brussels.
NATO’s headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, in which the ‘Always-American’ Supreme Allied Commander also resides.
The December 1989 NATO summit was a summit held for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The summit was held in Brussels, Belgium. This summit was the tenth NATO summit to bring world leaders from NATO together.
Sequestered Cold Fusion Patents - Belgium 1991
The two patents are: BE1002780 (A7) - 1991-06-04 “Nuclear Fusion” and BE1002781 (A6) - 1991-06-04 “Method for the Production of Energy by Nuclear Fusion”, filed by Joannes Van Den Boagert in 1989, sequestered in 1991.
Key points that justify these as ‘technologically advanced patents’ are presented.
From his patents:
- no elecrolyte
- atomic hydrogen
- ionized gas (plasma)
- deuterium that has been pre-ionized to form deuterons
- preference to palladium, titanium, or nickel
- iron is possibly likewise useful at higher temperature, e.g. 800C
- metals are present on a carrier material, e.g. are present on vapour deposited form
- separate metal particles 0.01 cm to 10 cm
- sintered metal (porous)
- sufficiently small hydrogen absorbing particles (colloidal particles)
- lithium and/or boron in plasma form
- lithium transformed to tritium
- electrostatic wetting
- large amount of free electrons
- expanded proton orbitals
- condensation of electron orbitals
- pulsating potential difference
- dielectric electrostatically charged surface
- reversing polarity
- agitation (lattice oscillations) of the interstitial neutrons
- electrostatic pressure
Method and Theory found...
The electrode-material at which the nuclear fusion reaction takes place consists preferably of a metal absorbing hydrogen exothermally. The absorption increases with gas pressure.
Examples of such metals of are: titanium, zirconium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum and palladium (ref. Inorganic Chemistry by C. de Barry Barnell and C.L. Wilson - Longmans Green and Co., London (1955) pg. 108). Iron is possibly likewise useful at higher temperature, e.g. 800C. The ‘sorption’ of hydrogen to Pd as a function of temperature and pressure is described in the aforementioned book, whereas the sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium to titanium is described in JACS 78 (1956) pgs. 5155-5159.
According to a particular embodiment said metals are present on a carrier material, e.g. are present on vapour deposited form. For example, the carrier material is carbon or another metal that is thermally and electrically a good conductor and optimally is slowing down high speed neutrons or is an absorber therefor.
The hydrogen-absorbing electrode can be porous, e.g. is a sintered metal or can be in the form of separate particles having a diameter of e.g. 0.01 cm to 10 cm. Separate particles can function individually as an electrode as in a polarograph (ref. Analytical Chemistry).
from description of figure 2, this quote begins top of pg. 5
Analogously thereto likewise cations, more particularly, their orbitals are smeared on a negatively charged surface. In a crystal such surface has to be considered spatially. the deuterium-cations are smeared out between the negative electron clouds surrounding the palladium ions. Since hereby the originally sphere-shaped D+ orbitals are smeared out over a larger surface at a constant charge their Coulomb repulsion will be reduced, and there exists the possibility that such expanded orbitals, resembling as droplets of oil, alike will come to fusion. Hereby one or more large orbitals are formed whereto the neutrons remain associated. Such may be considered as a kind of nuclear fusion.
from description of figure 4, pg. 5
In fig. 4 is illustrated how positive deuterium orbitals, represented by p, are situated between positive Pd ions and by the positive crystal lattice ions are pushed together electrostatically. Such will happen by reversing the polarity (Pd becomes the anode) and fused D+ is expelled as T+. In the nuclear fusion reaction orbitals of minimal energy are formed, i.e. binding energy is transformed as mass defect into free energy (kinetic energy and radiation).
from claims, pg. 8
9. Method according to claim 8, wherein deuterium is used mixed with lithium and/or borine in plasma form.
The hydrogen absorbing metals palladium and titanium are available in crystalline form with a “closest packing” crystal lattice. Palladium crystallizes in the cubic-surface centered system ( fcc = face centered cubic ) titanium crystallizes in the “hexagonal close-packed structure” (hpc).
In the non-published Belgian patent application #8900444, filed 21st April 1989, the hypothesis has been put forward that the orbital expansion of a charged elementary particle occurs when work is done by an electrical field built up by electrons that are present in surplus within the crystal lattice of the host metal.
A large amount of free electrons in a crystal promotes the absorption of protons and deuterons and builds a sufficiently large field strength whereby the orbital expansion and concentration of a plurality of protons within a new and larger orbital can take place.
By the agitation (lattice oscillations) of the interstitial neutrons and the electrostatic pressure exerted by the positive Pd-ions on the expanded and already condensed proton orbitals these orbitals are cut with the formation of nuclei with smaller energy content. As a result thereof mass-defect and transformation of rest-mass into energy takes place according to the equation e=m.c squared.
According to another practical embodiment said hydrogen absorbing particles are brought into motion in the absence of a liquid in a gas containing fusionable atomic nuclei that are absorbed in said particles.
According to an embodiment operating with sufficiently small hydrogen absorbing particles (colloidal particles) said particles form an aerosol in the gas containing fusionable nuclei.
According to a preferred embodiment the fusionable matter is deuterium and or not mixed with tritium.
The hydrogen absorbing material is e.g. a metal or a metal alloy...
... Preference is given to palladium, titanium, and nickel.
... hereby a high take-up of fusionable atomic nuclei is obtained, particularly when colloidal hydrogen absorbing particles, e.g. colloidal crystalline (fcc) Pd or (hpc) Ti is used, and a plasma of fusionable matter is used, e.g. deuterium that has been pre-ionized to form deuterons, is used.
E-Cat Patent Analysis - Rossi Patent Granted
U.S. Government LENR Patents
First this side-note…
“On or about Nov. 9, 2011, Rear Admiral Patrick Brady , commander of SPAWAR, ordered SPAWAR researchers to terminate all LENR research. The order came seven days after Fox News published a story about Andrea Rossi’s Oct. 28, 2011, demonstration of his Energy Catalyzer. New Energy Times discussed the Fox News story on Nov. 9.”
“LENR Phenomena and Potential Applications”, Professor Peter Hagelstein and Dr. Louis DeChiaro Date: 23-September-2015 Teradyne - 600 Riverpark Dr - North Reading, Massachusetts - United States
Dr. Louis F. DeChiaro
Louis F. DeChiaro was awarded the Ph.D. Degree in Physics in 1979 from Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. From 1979 to 2002, he served as an Electronics Engineer / researcher in the telecommunications industry at Bell Laboratories and Telcordia Technologies, retiring in 2002 as a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff. From 2002 to 2006, he served as an Associate Professor of Computational Science and a founding member of the new Computational Science Program at The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey.
He joined the US Navy as a civilian Physicist in September, 2006 and since 2009 been performing investigations in LENR physics and supporting the EMC efforts of Branch Q51 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA. During the period 2010-2012 he was on special assignment at the Naval Research Labs, Washington, D.C. in their experimental LENR group. Dr. DeChiaro is a member of Tau Beta Pi.
“System and Method for Generating Particles” US 8419919 B1
Assignee - Jwk International Corporation, The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy
(GRANT) Issued: Apr 16, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 14, 2007
“A Hybrid Fusion Fast Fission Reactor” WO 2009108331 A3
Assignee - Lawrence Parker Galloway Forsley
Publication date: Dec 30, 2009 - Priority date: Feb 25, 2008
“Method for Producing Heavy Electrons” US 20110255645 A1
Assignee - USA As Represented By The Administrator Of NASA
Publication date: Oct 20, 2011 - Priority date: Mar 25, 2010
“Deuterium Reactor” US 20130235963 A1
Assignee - Pharis Edward Williams
Publication date: Sep 12, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 12, 2012
$25,000 was received in 2008 from NSWC, Indian Head Division, to design experiments, review reports, and analyze data. The experiments verified heating using powered/granulated fuel.
“Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing” US 8450704 B2
Assignee: MIT and United States Department of Energy (Grant) Issued: May 28, 2013
This invention was made with Government support under Grant No. DE-FG36-09GO19001, awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.
Seldon Technologies Patents
“Methods of Generating Non-Ionizing Energy or Non-Ionizing 4He Using Graphene Based Materials” US 20110255644 A1
Publication: Oct 20, 2011 - Filing: Apr 19, 2011 - Priority: Dec 5, 2005
“Methods of Generating Energetic Particles Using Nanotubes and Articles Thereof”
US 20130266106 A1
Publication: Oct 10, 2013 - Filing: Aug 21, 2012 - Priority: Dec 5, 2005
U.S./Belgium Historical Relations
World War One
The invasion was called the Rape of Belgium and included the requisitioning of all food supplies. The Belgian people faced massive starvation. The U.S. provided relief, gaining the leadership of the American industrialist Herbert Hoover in this unprecedented humanitarian effort. Through the efforts of Herbert Hoover and the Commission for the Relief of Belgium, over 9 million people a day were fed in Belgium and Northern France. U.S. Belgium relations was off to a good start.
“An American Epic: Herbert Hoover and Belgian Relief in World War I” by George H. Nash © 1989 Prologue Magazine Spring, Vol. 21, No. 1
The subject of my essay, and of the book that I have just published, is, in a way, diplomacy, but diplomacy of a special sort—indeed, of a character that the world had never seen before. The Life of Herbert Hoover: The Humanitarian, 1914–1917, is also a book about politics, again of a special sort: the politics of philanthropy and humanitarian relief on a scale previously unknown and unimagined.
One American will be forever linked in history with Belgium’s travail in that awful war. His name, of course, is Herbert Hoover.
As the tense days passed in the early autumn of 1914, food supplies dwindled ominously in Belgium. To the outside world went emissaries pleading for the Allies to permit food to filter through the naval noose. Finally, on October 22, after weeks of negotiations, Herbert Hoover established under diplomatic protection a neutral organization to procure and distribute food to the Belgian populace.
It has been said that Hoover was responsible for saving more lives than any other person in history.
In 1918 Hoover confided to the American minister to Belgium, Brand Whitlock: As to the question of re-building in Belgium and Northern France, - “it is the one job that I would like to have. I believe that it contains usefulness and sentiment beyond any other occupation after this War is ended, and there is nothing that would appeal to me so much as to join with you in a mission of this kind…“
In 1920, after various negotiations, Hoover’s dreams achieved practical fruition. Upon liquidating, the CRB had a surplus of over $35 million. Of this sum it distributed more than $18 million in outright gifts to the Universities of Brussels, Ghent, Liege, Louvain, and other educational institutions. The remainder of the money was divided between two foundations created that year: the CRB Educational Foundation in the United States, and the Fondation Universitaire in Belgium
World War Two
Late 1930’s, Belgium was still recovering from the destruction of World War I. American and Belgium relations grew throughout this recovery period. This relationship deepened throughout World War Two and the Cold War.
In October 1939 Leopold made a radio broadcast to the United States. Speaking in English he told his audience that the feelings of the Belgian people were based on age-long struggles fought on Belgian soil. (text)
The Belgian people simply wanted to be left alone and in peace and whatever the Allies or the Axis countries might think of each other, Belgium wanted to be left out of it.
May 28, 1940, after 18 days of ceaseless German bombardment, Belgium surrenders unconditionally. A Belgian underground army grew up during the occupation; its work including protecting the port of Antwerp, the most important provisioning point for Allied troops on the Continent, from destruction by the Germans.
The Battle of the Bulge took place in the Ardennes region of eastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg between December 16, 1944 and January 25, 1945. It is widely known to be the largest single battle ever fought by the United States Military.
British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill stated, “This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory.” Indeed, in terms of participation and losses, the battle of the Bulge is arguably the greatest battle in American military history, fought on Belgian soil.
“A Closer Look at Churchill’s Battle of the Bulge Quote” by Scott Manning, Dec. 2011
Churchill, a master of the English language, chooses his words carefully and the quote seemed odd or at least incomplete. The use of “American” twice in the sentence gives the appearance of overcompensation. After some digging, it turns out the sentence is not complete and in its entirety reads, “Care must be taken in telling our proud tale not to claim for the British Army an undue share what is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war, and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever famous American victory.”
To understand it fully, some context of the quote is helpful. On January 18, 1945, while the battle was still raging, Churchill gave a lengthy speech and answered questions on the floor of the House of Commons. For any of you that have had the pleasure of watching the British version of C-SPAN, members of the Commons will freely interrupt and interject questions while the Prime Minister speaks. Churchill’s focus was on the situation in Greece, not the Battle of the Bulge. He carried his speaking and responses until a lunch break.
It was after lunch that Churchill finally turned to what he described as “the main battlefront of the war.”
“I have seen it suggested that the terrific battle which has been proceeding since 16th December on the American front is an Anglo-American battle. In fact, however, the United States troops have done almost all the fighting and have suffered almost all the losses. They have suffered losses almost equal to those on both sides in the battle of Gettysburg. Only one British Army Corps has been engaged in this action. All the rest of the 30 or more divisions, which have been fighting continuously for the last month are United States troops. The Americans have engaged 30 or 40 men for every one we have engaged, and they have lost 60 to 80 men for every one of ours. That is the point I wish to make.”
Belgian “Duty of Rembrance” 2015
The ‘Battle of the Ardennes’ was the final confrontation of the Second World War that took place on Belgian soil between 16 December 1944 and 28 January 1945. Many lived through it, others have heard about it, but nobody today can remain indifferent about this decisive episode.
Every year, not only in Bastogne but also in La Roche-en-Ardenne, Hotton, Houffalize Malmedy, Sankt Vith, Marche-en-Famenne, Vielsalm, or in Neuville-en-Condroz or Henri-Chapelle as well as in other places, villages and towns in Wallonia, we remember! We remember with emotion, reverence and respect these soldiers who came from overseas to bring peace into our towns, villages and homes, and paid a very heavy price.
It is our wish to express our “duty of remembrance”...
Ardennes America Cemetery Neuville-en-Condroz
This World War II cemetery covers 90 acres and contains the graves of 5,328 American servicemen, many of whom died in the Battle of the Bulge.
Cemetery Henri-Chapelle - Hombourg
In this World War II cemetery of 57 acres, rest 7992 American servicemen, many of whom gave their lives during the advance of the U.S. Armed Forces into Germany
The Atomic Bomb
Most of the uranium used during the U238 Manhattan Project, including that used for the nuclear weapons dropped on the Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was supplied by the Belgian firm Union Minière du Haut Katanga from Katanga Province in the Belgian Congo. This strengthened ties to U.S. military laboratories and weapon development programs.
A letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt about the possible construction of nuclear bombs. The next year Belgium was invaded by German forces.
August 2nd, 1939
President of the United States
Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring to your attention the following facts and recommendations:
In the course of the last four months it has been made probable — through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America — that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.
This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable — though much less certain — that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air.
The United States has only very poor [illegible] of uranium in moderate quantities. There is some good ore in Canada and the former Czechoslovakia, while the most important source of Uranium is Belgian Congo.
In view of this situation you may think it desirable to have some permanent contact maintained between the Administration and the group of physicists working on chain reactions in America. One possible way of achieving this might be for you to entrust with this task a person who has your confidence and who could perhaps serve in an unofficial capacity. His task might comprise the following:
a) To approach Government Departments, keep them informed of the further development, and out forward recommendations for Government action, giving particular attention to the problem of uranium ore for the United States;
b) To speed up the experimental work, which is at present being carried on within the limits of the budgets of University laboratories, by providing funds, if such funds be required, through his contacts with private persons who are willing to make a contribution for this cause, and perhaps also by obtaining the co-operation of industrial laboratories which have the necessary equipment.
I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from the Czechoslovakian mines, which she has taken over. That she should have taken such early action might perhaps be understood on the ground that the son of the German Under-Secretary of State, Von Weishlicker [sic], is attached to the Kaiser Wilheim Institute in Berlin where some of the American work on uranium is now being repeated.
Yours very truly, (Albert Einstein)
Frank Charles Carlucci III and Belgium
During the early 1970s, Carlucci became Donald Rumsfeld’s protege as Rumsfeld showed him the ropes. In 1969, when President Nixon persuaded Rumsfeld to leave his congressional seat to become director of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), the agency created by R. Sargent Shriver to fight President Johnson’s War on Poverty, Rumsfeld had Carlucci transferred to OEO from the State Department to head up the Community Action Program. Carlucci was Undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare when Caspar Weinberger was secretary during the Nixon administration. Carlucci became Ambassador to Portugal, and served in this position from 1974 until 1977. He is still very fondly remembered in Portugal among the winners of the November 25 Coup d’État. Carlucci was Deputy Director of the CIA from 1978–1981, under CIA Director Stansfield Turner.
Carlucci was deputy defense secretary from 1981 until 1983, national security advisor from 1986 until 1987, and defense secretary in 1987, following the resignation of Weinberger, his nomination by President Ronald Reagan and his confirmation in the Senate by a vote of 91 to 1. He was reportedly less hard-line in policies toward the Soviet Union than Weinberger. He served as Secretary of Defense until the end of the Reagan administration on January 20, 1989.
On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials.
Carlucci served as chairman of the Carlyle Group from 1992–2003, and chairman emeritus until 2005. He also has business interests in the following companies: General Dynamics, Westinghouse, Ashland Oil, Neurogen, CB Commercial Real Estate, Nortel, BDM International, Quaker Oats, and Kaman. Carlucci is Chairman of Envion USA, and former director of Wackenhut. He is a co-founder and senior member of the Frontier Group, a private equity investment firm co-founded by David Robb (formerly with The Carlyle Group) and to which Sanford McDonnell and Norm Augustine are senior advisors. Frontier Group is the principal investor in Utopia Residences, which has ordered the Utopia ocean liner. Carlucci is an Advisory board member of G2 Satellite Solutions and the Chairman Emeritus of Nortel Networks.
He is affiliated with the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a conservative think tank. He formerly sat on the Board of Directors of the Middle East Policy Council. He is Chairman Emeritus of the US-Taiwan Business Council . Carlucci is a member of the Board of Trustees of the RAND Corporation and founding co-chair of the Advisory Board for RAND’s Center for Middle East Public Policy. He is also a member of the Honorary Board of the Drug Policy Alliance, a group which advocates drug legalization.
Construction began: 1969, Commission date: 15 February 1975
Doel 1, 2 and 4 reactors are based on designs by Westinghouse and where supplied by ACECOWEN a consortium between ACEC, Cockerill and Westinghouse. The Doel 3 reactor is based on a design by Framatome and was supplied by the FRAMACECO consortium
Doel 1 and 2 have a license to operate for 40 years, but could operate for a further 10 years with a life-extension approved by the regulator. On 15 February 2015, Doel 1 was shut down after 40 years of operation, while discussions continue on a possible life extension.
The plant has three pressurized water reactors, with a total capacity of 2985 MWe and makes up 52% of the total Belgian nuclear generating capacity. Its units are rated as follows:
Tihange 1: 962 MWe (1975)
Tihange 2: 1008 MWe (1983)
Tihange 3: 1015 MWe (1985)
The reactors were supplied by different consortia, respectively ACLF (ACECOWEN-Creusot-Loire-Framatome), FRAMACECO (Framatome-ACEC-Cockerill), ACECOWEN (ACEC-Cockerill-Westinghouse).
From the World Nuclear Association
Nuclear Power in Belgium (Updated June 2015)
Belgium has seven nuclear reactors generating about half of its electricity.
Upgrading and Reactor Life Extension
The steam generators were replaced in Doel 2, 3 and 4 and Tihange 1, 2 and 3 between 1993 and 2004; and those of Doel 1 were replaced in 2009. Capacity uprates have also been carried out during this period.
In 2009, Electrabel began preparing the safety case for extending the operating lives of Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1 by ten years. In May 2010, Electrabel called for bids to replace the turbines at Doel 1&2 over 2011-15, including new instrumentation. Electrabel applied for a 10-year licence extension for Doel 1&2 in 2012, and the government agreed to this in principle in December 2014 subject to FANC approval (despite the 2012 policy described above). With FANC approval and specific government agreement not forthcoming, Electrabel closed Doel 1 in mid-February 2015 as required by law, and prepared to defuel it.
The company said earlier that “the Minister of Energy and Electrabel Group GDF SUEZ continue the discussions on the lifetime extension of Doel 1&2. Electrabel participates constructively in these discussions while recalling the need to define a clear legal and economic framework to consider investing locally €600 to 700 million needed for the extension of [Doel 1’s operating life].”
At the end of February 2015 the company said that it had ordered new fuel for Doel 1 and it could be restarted by the end of the year if agreement could be reached with the government on a life extension plan. Doel 2 is scheduled to close on November 30. Negotiations with government include removal of the nuclear generation tax, which cost the company €397 million in 2014. Legislation to enable 10-year life extensions for Doel 1&2 to 2025 was voted through by a parliamentary committee in May, and passed by parliament in June, thus overturning the 2003 law. However Electrabel needs to reach agreement with AFCN on upgrades to the units before reactivating the licence, and Engie is still in discussion with the government on the nuclear tax.
In January 2014 EDF and Electrabel agreed to invest €600 million in upgrading and life extension for Tihange 1, but with the government taking €1.25 billion in resulting windfall profits over ten years.
In 2012 Doel 3 and Tihange 2 were shut down due to concern about flaws in the reactor pressure vessels due to hydrogen flakes from their manufacture. After thorough investigations, Electrabel submitted a report to the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) confirming their structural integrity with significant margins. After requirements of FANC were met, it approved restarting the units in May 2013. However, further metallurgical testing led in March 2014 to Electrabel shutting them down again and bringing forward maintenance outages for both plants until uncertainties regarding the effect of neutrons on mechanical strength of the RPV steel were resolved. First-of-its-kind testing procedures were undertaken at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. On the basis of these GdF Suez submitted a report to FANC and its technical subsidiary, Bel V, which was considered by an international expert panel in November 2014. Further tests were ordered, and the results were considered by the reconvened panel in April 2015. FANC has deferred any possible restart to November. Parent company Engie said that the extended outage of the two units would cost the group some €40 million per month.
The Independent Assessment of Nuclear Developments in the World
“Doel-1 in Belgium Closed” - Wednesday 18 February 2015
The Belgian reactor Doel-1 was closed on 15 February 2015. Belgian legislation requires the permanent shutdown of nuclear reactors after 40 years of operation. Doel -1, a 433 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), had been first connected to the grid on 28 August 1974, but reached commercial operation—determining the operational lifetime—only on 15 February 1975.
Electrabel is attempting to receive a permission to restart Doel-1 and extend operation of Doel-2, scheduled for closure on 1 December 2015, arguing exceptional circumstances triggering the need for the units, as it has argued successfully for a lifetime extension of the Tihange-1 unit. In 2012, the Belgian government decided to confirm the scheduled complete nuclear phase-out until 2025, but to authorize continued operation for a 10-year period of Tihange-1.
Electrabel, a 100% subsidiary of GDF-Suez, is in an exceptional situation as two additional of its seven reactors are down with decreasing chances to ever get restarted. Doel-3 and Tihange-2 have experienced an unprecedented history involving the detection of thousands of crack indications in their pressure vessels. [For further information, see EnerWebWatch open-access special page providing links to all key primary documents since the original detection of the problem in 2012]. Only two days prior to the Doel-1 closure, the Federal Agency of Nuclear Control (AFCN) stated in a press release that the number of identified defects in the pressure vessels of both reactors had increased by several thousand: “This means that Electrabel now has to take into account 13,047 flaw indications for Doel 3 and 3,149 flaw indications for Tihange 2 in its calculations.” Jan Bens, head of the Belgian Safety Authority AFCN, declared: “This is possibly a worldwide problem for the whole nuclear sector. The solution lies in carrying out detailed inspections in all 430 nuclear power plants worldwide”. Few nuclear operators around the world have thus far initiated similar inspection programs.
The Doel-1 closure brings the number of operational units in the world back to 390, the level seen at the beginning of the year, before a new Chinese reactor had been connected to the grid on 12 January 2015.
Electrabel Corporate News
“Doel 3 and Tihange 2” May 13, 2015
In the summer of 2012, inspections of the reactor vessels of Doel 3 and Tihange 2 nuclear power stations (report) revealed the presence of hydrogen flakes that required in-depth analyses. Based on developments in this file in 2015, the period of unavailability of both reactors is pushed until the 1st of November 2015.
Belgium Nuclear Power Phase Out by 2025
Belgium and Oil Interests
Of the two (Exxon) Esso refineries in the Benelux, the Antwerp refinery is older than the Rotterdam refinery. It is also the largest with a processing capacity of approximately 13.5 million tonnes per year. Antwerp’s docklands, with five oil refineries, are home to a massive concentration of petrochemical industries, second only to the petrochemical cluster in Houston, Texas.
From Port of Antwerp News
The Port of Antwerp is the most important hub in the Western European pipeline network. Pipelines offer the (petro)chemical sector a safe, reliable and primarily environmentally friendly means of transport for the supply and distribution of its products in Belgium and neighbouring countries.
In the Antwerp (petro)chemical cluster alone, all industrial and independent tank storage companies are connected by 57 different product pipelines or 1.000 km of pipelines which transport almost 90% of all liquid goods (petro)checmicals within the port. Also for the supply and distribution of chemical products in Belgium and neighbouring countries, pipelines offer secure and reliable possibilities. Antwerp, Europe’s biggest producer of ethylene, is connected to the ARG network (Aethylen-Rohrleitungs-Geselschafft). The ARG network is an ethylene pipeline network that connects the Belgian, German and Dutch chemical industry. From Antwerp several pipelines go to Terneuzen, Rotterdam, Feluy and the Rhine-Ruhr area. The final result is not only a strong integration within the port, but also quite some interaction with (petro)chemical industries and clusters in the hinterland and neighbouring ports.