I’m confused about the territory of the (IH) Industrial Heat/Leonardo Corporation Rossi E-Cat licensing agreement. Who is mistaken, Popular Mechanics or SAXO? Last week, 20 April 2016, President Obama met with King Salman of Saudi Arabia. As leaders of the world’s top two oil producing nations; emergent LENR technology, worldwide E-Cat replications, energy/market economy considerations and energy transition strategies are on their minds.

Popular Mechanics Magazine states:

“In Cold Fusion 2.0, Who’s Scamming Whom?” David Hambling 20 April 2016

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(IH) “...for licensing rights so they would be able to sell the technology, but only in the U.S.… “

The Saxo Bank/Saxo Group states:

In “Saudi Arabia Prepares to Break Oil - Wealth Dependency” Managing Partner Saxo - Stephen Pope 5 April 2016

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(IH) “...has already been granted the license to sell and manufacture energy catalysers “E-Cats” in Saudi Arabia.”

The dispute between Rossi and Industrial Heat LLC takes on epic proportions. Links to posts following this dispute are found in the reference section at the bottom of this article.

Epic Proportions

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When they say something is in epic proportions…

They mean it’s HUGE.

  1. noting or pertaining to a long poetic composition, usually centered upon a hero, in which a series of great achievements or events is narrated in elevated style: Homer’s Iliad is an epic poem.
  2. resembling or suggesting such poetry: an epic novel on the discovery of ‘cold fusion’… like “The Impossible Invention” A three volume series...
  3. heroic; majestic; impressively great: epic event of clean nuclear energy.
  4. of unusually great size or extent: a crime of epic proportions.
  5. Slang. spectacular; very impressive; awesome: This energy is epic!

Word Origin

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1580-90; < Latin epicus < Greek epikós. See epos, -ic

An Example of Epic

Wiki

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The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος (meso) “middle” and ποταμός (potamos) “river” and literally means “(Land) between rivers”.

It is used throughout the Greek Septuagint (ca. 250 BC) to translate the Hebrew equivalent Naharaim. An even earlier Greek usage of the name Mesopotamia is evident from The Anabasis of Alexander, which was written in the late 2nd century AD, but specifically refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was used to designate the land east of the Euphrates in north Syria.

The Aramaic termbiritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept. Later, the term Mesopotamia was more generally applied to all the lands between the Euphrates and the Tigris, thereby incorporating not only parts of Syria but also almost all of Iraq and southeastern Turkey. The neighbouring steppes to the west of the Euphrates and the western part of the Zagros Mountains are also often included under the wider term Mesopotamia.

A further distinction is usually made between Northern or Upper Mesopotamia and Southern or Lower Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia, also known as the Jazira, is the area between the Euphrates and the Tigris from their sources down to Baghdad. Lower Mesopotamia consists of southern Iraq, Kuwait and parts of western Iran.

In modern academic usage, the term Mesopotamia often also has a chronological connotation. It is usually used to designate the area until the Muslim conquests, with names like Syria, Jazirah, and Iraq being used to describe the region after that date. It has been argued that these later euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th-century Western encroachments.

The region was one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent, and the Yellow River in China.

Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons are descendants of farmers who left modern day Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago.

Genetic researchers say they have found compelling evidence that…

Four out of five…

(80% of) white Europeans can trace their roots to the Near East.

An Epic Story in the Making

“On Saudi Arabia Trip Obama Seeks to Quell Tensions”

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by Halimah Abdullah and Ron Allen NBCNews 21 April 2016

Quote:

King Salman and Obama walked side by side into the ruler’s palace.

-end quote

President Obama King Salman and LENR Considerations

I wonder if they talked about the IH LLC vs Rossi dispute?

Or they might have discussed, what I find to be, the most intriguing aspect of the Saxo post (in regards to the IH LLC vs Rossi dispute).

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Quote - Stephen Pope, Managing Partner Spotlight Group, Saxo:

Saudi Arabia’s Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has said that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has considered how to face a future where it is no longer so heavily reliant on oil revenues.

A potential partner for KSA to partner with is Industrial Heat LLC that was incorporated in 2012 and is based in Raleigh, North Carolina. This firm has already been granted the license to sell and manufacture energy catalysers “E-Cats” in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, I do not think it unreasonable to envisage the Saudis looking for partners to help start laying the groundwork for commercialisation of LENR within the Kingdom and for export overseas. - end quote

Perhaps they spoke about Iranian LENR and surface plasmons.

“The Study of Cavitation Bubble- Surface Plasmon Resonance Interaction For LENR and Biochemical Processes” Farzan Amini 2013

Abstract

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The cavitation bubble resonator (CBR) can be used as a new coupling technique. The purpose of this paper is to study coupled SPR-CBR, coupled CBR-Nickel and coupled CBR-Biochemical. It is expected the cavitation bubble resonator assists a pseudo coupling process. The design of nano CBR cell can play a significant role in the sciences of therapeutic drugs and power generation.

Coupled SPR –CBR

The evanescent field of a surface plasmon wave reaches its maximum strength directly at the metal-dielectric interface and decays exponentially into the electric medium at a distance of several hundreds of nanometers. Therefore the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is extremely sensitive to changes of the optical properties of the adjacent dielectric medium. Prism is used for enhancing the wave-vector of the incident light. Photons are not coupled directly to the metal/dielectric interface, but via the evanescent tail of the light which is totally internally reflected at the base of a high-index prism (with the dielectric constant ε&gt; ε). The modified propagation constant kSPR, x can be written k = k + Δk.

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pg. 2 Surface plasmon wave can be confined to a very small volume using nano-cavities or (nano)micro resonator with low dissipation inside a supercavity as a nano bubble. Moreover, wave inside the cavity can be controlled by dynamically changing the environment of the cavity. While surface plasmon wave propagate inside the nano bubble, nano bubble can play a significant role as a nano cavity.

pg. 5 Copper nuclei, with the exception of the stable isotopes Cu63 and Cu65, decay with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni nuclei .This is an exothermal process that releases LENR. Basis of SPR and nickel interaction, an initial design of nano CBR cell has been shown in Fig.6. The collision of the surface plasmon wave of reentrant jet would affect the reflecting signal from prism.

Just to spice it up, they might have shared concerns about ‘Future Energy’ 2017 and the LENR researchers at the Kazakhstan Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  • Aktau, Kazakhstan was once the site of a nuclear power station. The BN-350 FBR went online in 1973, and closed in 1999. In addition to producing plutonium, BN-350 was also used to provide power and for desalination to supply fresh water to the city.
  • Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country in the world.
  • Like the U.S. Russia and Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan is an oil producer, the 18th largest at 1,719,000 bbl/day.
  • Expo 2017 is scheduled for June 10 to September 10, 2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The theme of the exhibition is “Future Energy”.
  • Kazakhstan has produced high heat and control in a LENR system.

К ВОПРОСУ О ИЗБЫТОЧНОМ ТЕПЛОВЫДЕЛЕНИИ В СИСТЕМЕ НИКЕЛЬ–ВОДОРОД

1А.Н. Озерной, 2М.Ф.Верещак, И.А.Манакова, И.В. Хромушин РГП ИЯФ, Алматы, Казахстан

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С целью создания определенного задела для успешного выполнения проекта «Мессбауэровская спектроскопия тантала-181 как инструмент в исследованиях явления термофлуктуационного плавления» нами был предпринят поиск наиболее интересных объектов, пригодных для исследований этого явления. Полагают [1], что оно способствует образованию бинарных соединений в ходе их формирования потоками ультрадисперсных частиц при ионно-плазменном напылении на подложки, имеющие температуру, близкую к комнатной.

“The Question of Excess Heat in Nickel-Hydrogen”
A.N. Ozernoi, M.F. Vereschak, I.A. Ermakova, I.V. Hromushin
RSE INP Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Translated to English by Bob Higgins of Accuiti Science & Engineering)

The duration of the testing was limited to 100 hours. During this time the “delta” remained constant (around 25°C), and according to our estimates for the entire test period, the vessel with the fuel produced more than 2 kWH of excess thermal energy. The appearance of the original, and spent “fuel” (ash), which is in the form of a speckled rod having a diameter of about 3 mm, is shown in Figure 7.

Our experiments have shown convincingly that excess heat was actually produced in the nickel-hydrogen system.

“Researchers at Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan Report Excess Heat in Nickel-Hydrogen System” 19 November 2015 (E-Cat World article)

While pursuing the subject of Expo 2017 and LENR in Kazakhstan, the alarming development of the E-Cat replication by Russian physicist, Alexander G. Parkhomov, at the People’s Friendship University of Russia in Moscow, certainly might have been brought up by President Obama or King Salman.

Russian LENR

Исследование аналога высокотемпературного теплогенератора Росси” Доклад на семинаре «Холодный ядерный синтез и шаровая молния” в РУДН 25 декабря 2014 г. Пархомов Александр Георгиевич

Parkhomov claims he generated temperatures of 1,200 centigrade for eight minutes with the device. He couldn’t maintain the temperature but the device required 300 to 500 watts of electricity.

An estimated (COP) of 2.58.

“Russian Physicist Claims to Have Replicated Rossi’s Hot E-Cat”
Dec. 2015 (E-Cat = Rossi Cold Fusion - blog article)

Such an important LENR energy discussion between the rulers of the world’s leading oil producing nations would take on global dimensions, the conversation would certainly cycle thru to China.

Yes, another E-Cat replication.

载氢金属异常放热实验

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本报告描述了 E-CAT 装置的复制实验,观察到了明显的异常放热现象

1、实验反应容器
容器采用不锈钢制作,圆柱形容器,直径 68mm,桶体长度 150mm,容器壁厚 10mm,

容器壁上加工一个测温孔,用以插入热电偶测量容器温度,尾部焊接一根不锈钢管,管长 600mm,用以连接真空设备和氢气发生器,容器内置镍制坩埚,坩埚内径 20mm 外径 34mm 高 100mm 深 93mm,坩埚螺纹盖,坩埚内放入 12.7 克燃料,其中氢化铝锂 1.46 克,镍粉 11.24 克。

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“New Songsheng Jiang LENR Tests: Excess Heat for 7 days (Update — New Chinese Replication Announced)“ (E-Cat World article)

This paper reports a result of anomalous heat generation in hydrogen-loaded metals at temperature below 1300 °C. The heat was produced in the fuel sample (mixture of nickel powder and LiAlH4), which was filled a nickel cell, and then the cell was placed in a sealed stainless-steel chamber. The results of two runs are demonstrated. Excess heat lasted for seven days in the first run. The maximum excess heat power was produced more than 450 W.

The excess heat was evaluated to be 78 MJ for the first 72 hours. In the second run, excess heat lasted for 120 minutes after external heating power turning off, and the maximum heat power was ~450 W.

The self sustaining effect can be observed clearly when power off in the second run. The maximum heat energy from possible chemical reaction was estimated to be 26 kJ, a value much smaller than the excess heat.

Therefore, excess heat could not originate from any chemical reactions and it might originate from some nuclear reactions.

Who is Talking to Who?

King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is 80 years old. I speculate that the ‘go to guy’ for this type of discussion would be his son, ‘Mr. Everything’, Saudi Arabia’s Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, in attendance at the April 2016 US-Gulf Cooperation Council Summit.

Consider these talking points in the Bloomberg article and you will likely concur.

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The $2 Trillion Project to Get Saudi Arabia’s Economy Off Oil - Eight unprecedented hours with ‘Mr. Everything’ Prince Mohammed bin Salman” by Peter Waldman 21 April 2016 Bloomberg Businessweek

Quote

  • ...King Salman took the throne (2015), he issued a decree naming Prince Mohammed defense minister, chief of the royal court, and president of a newly created council to oversee the economy.
  • Prince Mohammed was given control over Saudi Aramco by royal decree 48 hours later.
  • ...President Obama met the prince at Camp David last May, he said he found him “extremely knowledgeable, very smart, and wise beyond his years.”
  • The prince visited Obama at the White House in September...
  • ...the two men (did) were likely to meet again on April 20...
  • a new kind of Middle East potentate—one who tries to emulate Steve Jobs...
  • aiming to fulfill what he calls his generation’s “different dreams” for a postcarbon future.
  • “We believe women have rights in Islam that they’ve yet to obtain” the prince says.
  • On April 25 the prince is scheduled to unveil his “Vision for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” an historic plan encompassing broad economic and social changes.
  • ...make investments the source of Saudi government revenue, not oil...
  • ...the gargantuan sovereign fund will team up with private equity firms to eventually invest half its holdings overseas, excluding the Aramco stake, in assets that will produce a steady stream of dividends unmoored from fossil fuels.
  • Saudi Arabia’s Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has said that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has considered how to face a future where it is no longer so heavily reliant on oil revenues. -end quotes

News of Obama’s 2016 Gulf State Visit

“A Look Inside Obama’s Saudi Arabia Visit” by Chris McGonigal
Huffington Post - 21 April 2016

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US-Gulf Cooperation Council Summit

Photo left to right: Saudi Defense Minister and Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman; Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, crown prince of the Kingdom of Bahrain; Emir of Kuwait Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah; Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani; Oman Deputy Prime Minister for the Council of Ministers Sayyid Fahd bin Mahmoud al-Said; Obama; King Salman of Saudi Arabia; King of Bahrain Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa; Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan; Saudi Interior Minister Crown Prince Mohammed bin Nayef and Gulf Cooperation Council Secretary General Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani pose for a photo during U.S.-Gulf Cooperation Council summit in Riyadh.

‘US, Gulf to work together to deal with low oil prices’ Obama said…

...after a meeting in the Saudi capital with the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council.

Summary

The countries I mention, while musing about President Obama discussing LENR replication with King Salman, are participating in Expo 2017 ‘Future Energy’, including the U.S. and Saudi Arabia.

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So are Sweden and Norway, both active in LENR research/replication.

Like Saudi Arabia they are ready to transition away from carbon energy profits.

Why the Lugano test in the first place? To encourage replication? Why?

What does IH think about this? Are they happy about it? How does it affect their market strategy? Do their actions hint that high temp cold fusion is not real?

Replications

The questions I’ve posed are unanswerable at this time.

What is the overall chance that each of (or a few of) these replications will reach industrial heat output in time for Expo 2017?

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In my humble opinion... EXCELLENT!!!

Replication troubles IH yet favours Rossi, the lawsuit is of little consequence. Replication heats up the dispute, shortening the time of full disclosure.

Consider This

Quote Dennis Bushnell NASA:

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“This is FAR from a ‘Narrow Band’/episodic set of physical phenomena.”

Also

Popular Mechanics article quotes:

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“Greenyer says there now about 20 groups around the world following the MFMP recipe and trying to reproduce Rossi’s results.”

“A viable open-source cold fusion recipe would trigger a gigantic energy research gold rush. Alternative methods could be found which avoid the area covered by Rossi’s patents and leave him side-lined as a multi-billion-dollar cold fusion industry powers up.”

“Saudi Arabia Turns Oil Weapon on Iran: Kemp”

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By John Kemp 18 April 2016 Reuters

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Saudi Arabia’s decision to scupper negotiations on a coordinated oil output freeze in Doha on Sunday seems to confirm a significant shift in the kingdom’s oil policy.

For decades, the kingdom has insisted it does not wield oil as a diplomatic weapon, but at the weekend it did just that as part of an intensifying conflict with Iran. (“Saudi-Iran tensions scupper deal to freeze oil output”, Reuters, April 17) - end quote

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United Press International News 29 April 2016 Oil by Daniel J. Graeber

“Exxon Squeaks Out a Profit, Though Chevron Stumbles”

Quote

IRVING, Texas, April 29 (UPI) — Exxon Mobil said Friday it managed to report a profit during the first quarter downturn, though pressure continued to build for U.S. counterpart Chevron.

Exxon said its first quarter earnings of $1.8 billion was its weakest in more than a decade as “lower commodity prices and weaker refining margins” took their toll. First quarter figures compare with earnings of $4.9 billion one year ago. - end quote

“Crude Oil Rally Knows No Limit”

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Quote
NEW YORK, April 29 (UPI) — Strong recovery for U.S. consumer wages balanced against a slowdown in the European economy, but it was enough for a soft rally Friday for crude oil prices.

Crude oil prices, which have increased steadily during the month of April, again saw gains at the start of trading Friday in New York. The price for Brent crude oil moved up 0.3 percent to $48.31 per barrel. West Texas Intermediate, the U.S. benchmark price for crude oil, gained 0.8 percent to $46.44 per barrel. - end quote

“Russia’s Central Bank Keeps Rates Unchanged”

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MOSCOW, April 29 (UPI) — Citing the risk of crude oil prices moving lower and lingering inflationary pressures, the Russian Central Bank said Friday it was keeping its key rate steady. - end quote

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“Weatherford Says It’s Ready for Anything”

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BAAR, Switzerland, April 29 (UPI) — The top executive at oil services company Weatherford International said he was taking a constructive approach to what he said was a “violent downturn.”

The company said in its February report on the fourth quarter it lost $1.2 billion in profits. Revenue of $2 billion was down 46 percent. - end quote

“Gulf Keystone Petroleum Mulling Debt” Iraq-focused oil company said in the past it was short of the capital needed for forward momentum.

Quote
LONDON, April 29 (UPI) — Iraq-focused Gulf Keystone Petroleum said Friday it reached an agreement with bondholders to delay making interest payments while it seeks debt restructuring.

The company said it reached a deal with a committee of holders of notes and bonds to enter into a “standstill agreement” on interest payments for April. The agreement includes the bulk of the company’s bondholders, though they represent less than 75 percent of total holders. - end quote

“Oil Opposition Grows on Both U.S. Shores”

Quote
SEATTLE, April 29 (UPI) — Seattle activists who took on Shell offshore Alaska turned their eye to Exxon, while opponents on the east coast raised objections to ongoing energy work there.

Activists from 350 Seattle said they’re set to deliver more than 10,000 signatures to state officials calling for the state of Washington to divest from Exxon Mobil. Last month, the attorneys general from 20 states announced plans to work with environmental campaign groups on ongoing or potential investigations into whether Exxon misled investors decades ago about the impact their business had on climate change. - end quote

Addendum 28 April 2016

Arab News‎ - Vision for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Middle East Eye - Saudi Arabia’s new economic vision: Oil free by 2020?

Reuters

“Saudi Prince Unveils Sweeping Plans to End ‘Addiction’ to Oil”
By Samia Nakhoul, William Maclean and Marwa Rashad
Reuters Business Riyadh 25 April 2016

Quote
The young prince overseeing Saudi Arabia’s economy unveiled ambitious plans on Monday aimed at ending the kingdom’s “addiction” to oil and transforming it into a global investment power. Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said the world’s top oil exporter expects state oil company Saudi Aramco to be valued at more than $2 trillion ahead of the sale of less than 5% of it through an IPO. He said the kingdom would raise the capital of its public investment fund to 7 tn riyals ($2 tn) from 600 bn riyals ($160 bn). The plans also included changes that would alter the social structure of the ultra-conservative Muslim kingdom by pushing for women to have a bigger economic role and by offering improved status to resident expatriates. - end quote

A few References to the IH LLC and Rossi Dispute

An Impossible Invention Blog “Let’s Join Forces to Bring Out the Truth on Rossi-IH Affair”

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Sifferkol “The Rossi vs Darden #LENR #ECAT battle: Not about IP and Money – All About Freedom vs Control!”

E-Cat World “Complaint of Andrea Rossi and Leonardo Corp, and License Agreement (Court Documents) — COP “Substantially Greater than fifty (50)” During Test”

Op. Ed.

Human Rights Precious and Holy

I was 15 years old in San Francisco, with my first girlfriend on our first date. Little did I know, she had invited me to gather signatures, going door to door, for a California ballet measure, to make rape within marriage illegal

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I’m 58 years old now and I remember clearly the disbelief, the shock of emotions, and the anger I felt that a sister of mine could be raped or killed, often with impunity, by her husband in the U.S. and other parts of the world.

Many of us strongly advised all the girls we knew, don’t get married.

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Remember the deep friendship between a sister and a brother…

Innocent playmates discovering the world?

Precious and holy.

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Everyone is someone’s son or daughter...

Respect all sons. Respect all daughters.

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End the cycles of violence within the family and between nations.

War begets Suffering begets Hate begets Terror begets War...

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Stop it NOW.

Then everyone becomes Sister and Brother.

Hope that humanity learns...

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Choose Love together in Truth.

-gbgobleapril2016

Peter Pan

by J. M. Barrie - Charles Scribner’s Sons Publishing Company

from page six...

“Mrs. Darling first heard of Peter when she was tidying her children’s minds. It is the nightly custom of every good mother after her children are asleep to rummage in their minds and put things straight for the next morning, repacking into their proper places the many articles that have wandered during the day.

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If you could keep awake (but of course you can’t) you would see your own mother doing this, and you would find it very interesting watching her. It is quite like tidying up drawers. You would see her on her knees, I expect, lingering humorously over some of your contents, wondering where on earth you had picked this thing up, making discoveries sweet and not so sweet, pressing this to her cheek as if it were as nice as a kitten, and hurriedly stowing that out of sight.

When you wake in the morning, the naughtiness and evil passions with which you went to bed have been folded up small and put in the bottom of your mind; and on top, beautifully aired, are spread out your prettiest thoughts, ready for you to put on.”

Human Rights Watch Kazakhstan

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Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion, and torture remains a serious problem. In 2014, authorities closed newspapers, jailed or fined dozens of people after peaceful but unsanctioned protests, and fined or detained worshipers for practicing religion outside state controls. Government critics, including opposition leader Vladimir Kozlov, remain in detention after unfair trials. Recently adopted changes to the criminal code, as well as a new law on trade unions, contain articles restricting fundamental freedoms and which are incompatible with international standards. Torture remains common in places of detention and while some police officers faced charges, impunity remains the norm.

Human Rights Watch Russia

The Kremlin’s crackdown on civil society, media, and the Internet took a more sinister turn in 2015 as the government further intensified harassment and persecution of independent critics. For the fourth year in a row, parliament adopted laws and authorities engaged in repressive practices that increasingly isolated the country. Against the backdrop of the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine and sanctions against Russia over Crimea, anti-Western hysteria has been at its peak since the end of the Cold War.

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Human Rights Watch Iran

Although Iran elected a moderate candidate, Hassan Rouhani, to be president in 2013, the country has seen no significant improvements in human rights. Repressive elements within the security and intelligence forces, as well as the judiciary, retained wide powers and continued to be the main perpetrators of rights abuses. Executions, especially for drug-related offenses, increased sharply from previous years. Security and intelligence forces arrested journalists, bloggers, and social media activists, and revolutionary courts handed down heavy sentences against them.

Human Rights Watch Saudi Arabia

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Saudi Arabia’s change in leadership in 2015 did not lead to significant human rights changes. Saudi authorities continued to arbitrarily arrest, try, and convict peaceful dissidents. Dozens of human rights defenders and activists are serving long prison sentences for criticizing authorities or advocating political and rights reforms. Authorities systematically discriminate against women and religious minorities. In 2015, Saudi Arabia carried out 158 executions, 63 for non-violent drug crimes. On January 2, 2016, Saudi Arabia executed 47 men for terrorism-related offenses, including prominent Shia cleric Nimr al-Nimr, who was convicted following a deeply flawed trial. On March 2015, a Saudi-led coalition launched an airstrike campaign against Houthi forces in Yemen that included use of banned cluster munitions and apparently unlawful strikes that killed civilians.

Human Rights Watch China and Tibet

China remains a one-party authoritarian state that systematically curbs fundamental rights. Since President Xi Jinping assumed power, the government has detained and prosecuted hundreds of activists and human rights defenders. Between July and September 2015, authorities interrogated some 280 lawyers – the backbone of China’s human rights movement – in a nationwide sweep. The government has moved to tighten control over nongovernmental organizations, activists, and the media through a slew of new laws that cast activism and peaceful criticism of the government as state security threats. The “Great Firewall” used to censor the Internet has been expanded. Despite legislation to curb end torture in custody, police and interrogators have found ways to evade legal protections.

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Human Rights Watch USA

The United States Program of Human Rights Watch protects and promotes the fundamental rights and dignity of every person subject to the authority of the US government. We investigate and expose systemic human rights violations committed by the US federal, state and local governments, particularly in three priority areas: criminal justice, immigration, and national security. We prioritize issues affecting vulnerable populations, especially those that are likely to have difficulty vindicating their rights through the political process or in the courts, such as the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities, prisoners, immigrants, and children. Our investigations become the basis for strategic advocacy to press those in power to effect changes in laws and policies to respect fundamental rights.

Criminal Justice U.S.

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Many of the most serious human rights violations in the US occur in the realm of criminal justice. The criminal justice system—from policing and prosecution through to punishment—is plagued with injustices like racial disparities, excessively harsh sentencing, and drug and immigration policies that improperly emphasize criminalization. As a result, the United States has the largest reported prison population in the world. Specific policies often have a particularly harsh impact on youth, racial minorities or low-income populations accused of or victimized by crime. Jail and prison conditions are in many respects unsafe and inhumane. The US Program investigates such injustices and advocates for reforms to ensure that the US meets its international legal obligations to ensure accountability for serious offenses, while doing so in a fair and non-discriminatory manner.

Immigration U.S.

The US Program’s immigration work focuses on reforming harsh, outdated, and ineffective detention and deportation policies to ensure they take into account family unity, flight from persecution, and labor considerations that draw immigrants to the United States. We have exposed the crimes and unsafe working conditions that unauthorized immigrants are too afraid to report out of fear of being deported, the risks of violence back home for those denied due process to seek protection from US deportation, and the devastating impact on millions of people—citizens as well as non-citizens—whose families are torn apart due to inflexible and unfair immigration policies.

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National Security U.S.

The US has frequently invoked national security as a justification for policies that violate international law. These include the torture of detainees in the US “war on terror,” secretive targeted killings abroad, and indefinite detention without trial at Guantanamo Bay. Within the US, the government has conducted unfair terrorism investigations that in some cases have effectively entrapped indigent and mentally ill persons. Large-scale surveillance by the National Security Agency is hampering the ability of journalists and lawyers to do their work and corroding US democracy. We have consistently called for the US to provide fair trials in civilian courts to all terrorism suspects, ensure accountability for past abuses, including at the highest levels of government, and bring all national security policies in line with US obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law.

U.S. Foreign Policy

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Human Rights Watch advocates for a US foreign policy that is consistent with its international human rights obligations. The US government should integrate human rights into its wider foreign policy agenda, engage regularly with independent civil society abroad, and work closely with allied governments to promote and protect human rights where they are most at risk. Influencing US foreign policy, whether directly with other governments or in intergovernmental organizations, is an essential tool to address, highlight, and promote human rights globally.

“Three Countries Cause World Death Penalty Rates to Soar”

The number of state executions worldwide skyrocketed more than 50 percent in 2015 compared with a year earlier, Amnesty International’s latest annual survey reports today 6 April 2016.

In fact, last year saw the highest number of executions globally in more than 25 years, with three countries—Iran, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia—accounting for nearly 90 percent of known executions, even as much of the world seems to be rejecting the practice. (Amnesty International’s figures exclude executions in China, which regards information on its use of the death penalty as a state secret).

Consider ‘Courage’ and Youth - Also Our Sons and Daughters Granddaughters and Grandsons-gbgoble2016

The Rectorial Address Delivered at St. Andrews University

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3 MAY 1922 J. M. Barrie

Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He was born and educated in Scotland but moved to London, where he wrote a number of successful novels and plays.

COURAGE

To the Red Gowns of St. Andrews

You have had many rectors here in St. Andrews who will continue in bloom long after the lowly ones such as I am are dead and rotten and forgotten.

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They are the roses in December; you remember someone said that God gave us memory so that we might have roses in December.

But I do not envy the great ones. In my experience, and you may find in the end it is yours also, the people I have cared for most and who have seemed most worth caring for, my December roses, have been very simple folk.

Yet I wish that for this hour I could swell into someone of importance, so as to do you credit. I suppose you had a melting for me because I was hewn out of one of your own quarries, walked similar academic groves, and have trudged the road on which you will soon set forth.

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I would that I could put into your hands a staff for that somewhat bloody march, for though there is much about myself that I conceal from other people, to help you I would expose every cranny of my mind.

But, alas, when the hour strikes for the Rector to answer to his call he is unable to become the undergraduate he used to be, and so the only door into you is closed.

We, your elders, are much more interested in you than you are in us. We are not really important to you. I have utterly forgotten the address of the Rector of my time, and even who he was, but I recall vividly climbing up a statue to tie his colours round its neck and being hurled therefrom with contumely.

We remember the important things. I cannot provide you with that staff for your journey; but perhaps I can tell you a little about it, how to use it and lose it and find it again, and cling to it more than ever. You shall cut it, so it is ordained, every one of you for himself, and its name is Courage. You must excuse me if I talk a good deal about courage to you to-day. There is nothing else much worth speaking about to undergraduates or graduates or white-haired men and women. It is the lovely virtue, the rib of Himself that God sent down to His children.

My special difficulty is that though you have had literary rectors here before, they were the big guns, the historians, the philosophers; you have had none, I think, who followed my more humble branch, which may be described as playing hide and seek with angels. My puppets seem more real to me than myself, and I could get on much more swingingly if I made one of them deliver this address.

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It is M’Connachie who has brought me to this pass. M’Connachie, I should explain, as I have undertaken to open the innermost doors, is the name I give to the unruly half of myself: the writing half. We are complement and supplement. I am the half that is dour and practical and canny, he is the fanciful half; my desire is to be the family solicitor, standing firm on my hearthrug among the harsh realities of the office furniture; while he prefers to fly around on one wing. I should not mind him doing that, but he drags me with him. I have sworn that M’Connachie shall not interfere with this address today; but there is no telling. I might have done things worth while if it had not been for M’Connachie, and my first piece of advice to you at any rate shall be sound: don’t copy me.

A good subject for a rectorial address would be the mess the Rector himself has made of life. I merely cast this forth as a suggestion, and leave the working of it out to my successor. I do not think it has been used yet.

My own theme is Courage, as you should use it in the great fight that seems to me to be coming between youth and their betters; by youth, meaning, of course, you, and by your betters us. I want you to take up this position: That youth have for too long left exclusively in our hands the decisions in national matters that are more vital to them than to us.

Things about the next war, for instance, and why the last one ever had a beginning. I use the word fight because it must, I think, begin with a challenge; but the aim is the reverse of antagonism, it is partnership. I want you to hold that the time has arrived for youth to demand that partnership, and to demand it courageously. That to gain courage is what you come to St. Andrews for. With some alarums and excursions into college life. That is what I propose, but, of course, the issue lies with M’Connachie.

Your betters had no share in the immediate cause of the war; we know what nation has that blot to wipe out; but for fifty years or so we heeded not the rumblings of the distant drum, I do not mean by lack of military preparations; and when war did come we told youth, who had to get us out of it, tall tales of what it really is and of the clover beds to which it leads.

We were not meaning to deceive, most of us were as honourable and as ignorant as the youth themselves; but that does not acquit us of failings such as stupidity and jealousy, the two black spots in human nature which, more than love of money, are at the root of all evil. If you prefer to leave things as they are we shall probably fail you again. Do not be too sure that we have learned our lesson, and are not at this very moment doddering down some brimstone path.

I am far from implying that even worse things than war may not come to a State. There are circumstances in which nothing can so well become a land, as I think this land proved when the late war did break out and there was but one thing to do. There is a form of anaemia that is more rotting than even an unjust war. The end will indeed have come to our courage and to us when we are afraid in dire mischance to refer the final appeal to the arbitrament of arms.

I suppose all the lusty of our race, alive and dead, join hands on that.

‘And he is dead who will not fight;
And who dies fighting has increase.’

But if you must be in the struggle, the more reason you should know why, before it begins, and have a say in the decision whether it is to begin. The youth who went to the war had no such knowledge, no such say; I am sure the survivors, of whom there must be a number here today, want you to be wiser than they were, and are certainly determined to be wiser next time themselves.

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If you are to get that partnership, which, once gained, is to be for mutual benefit, it will be, I should say, by banding yourselves with these men, not defiantly but firmly, not for selfish ends but for your country’s good. In the meantime they have one bulwark; they have a General who is befriending them as I think never, after the fighting was over, has a General befriended his men before. Perhaps the seemly thing would be for us, their betters, to elect one of these young survivors of the carnage to be our Rector. He ought now to know a few things about war that are worth our hearing. If his theme were the Rector’s favourite, diligence, I should be afraid of his advising a great many of us to be diligent in sitting still and doing no more harm.

Of course he would put it more suavely than that, though it is not, I think, by gentleness that you will get your rights; we are dogged ones at sticking to what we have got, and so will you be at our age. But avoid calling us ugly names; we may be stubborn and we may be blunderers, but we love you more than aught else in the world, and once you have won your partnership we shall all be welcoming you. I urge you not to use ugly names about anyone. In the war it was not the fighting men who were distinguished for abuse; as has been well said, ‘Hell hath no fury like a noncombatant.’

Never ascribe to an opponent motives meaner than your own. There may be students here today who have decided this session to go in for immortality, and would like to know of an easy way of accomplishing it. That is a way, but not so easy as you think. Go through life without ever ascribing to your opponents motives meaner than your own. Nothing so lowers the moral currency; give it up, and be great.

Another sure way to fame is to know what you mean. It is a solemn thought that almost no one, if he is truly eminent, knows what he means. Look at the great ones of the earth, the politicians. We do not discuss what they say, but what they may have meant when they said it.

In 1922 we are all wondering, and so are they, what they meant in 1914 and afterwards. They are publishing books trying to find out; the men of action as well as the men of words. There are exceptions. It is not that our statesmen are ‘sugared mouths with minds theref rae’; many of them are the best men we have got, upright and anxious, nothing cheaper than to miscall them. The explanation seems just to be that it is so difficult to know what you mean, especially when you have become a swell.

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No longer apparently can you deal in ‘russet yeas and honest kersey noes’; gone for ever is simplicity, which is as beautiful as the divine plain face of Lamb’s Miss Kelly. Doubts breed suspicions, a dangerous air. Without suspicion there might have been no war. When you are called to Downing Street to discuss what you want of your betters with the Prime Minister he won’t be suspicious, not as far as you can see; but remember the atmosphere of generations you are in, and when he passes you the toast-rack say to yourselves, if you would be in the mode, ‘Now, I wonder what he meant by that.’

Even without striking out in the way I suggest, you are already disturbing your betters considerably. I sometimes talk this over with M’Connachie, with whom, as you may guess, circumstances compel me to pass a good deal of my time. In our talks we agree that we, your betters, constantly find you forgetting that we are your betters.

Your answer is that the war and other happenings have shown you that age is not necessarily another name for sapience; that our avoidance of frankness in life and in the arts is often, but not so often as you think, a cowardly way of shirking unpalatable truths, and that you have taken us off our pedestals because we look more natural on the ground.

You who are at the rash age even accuse your elders, sometimes not without justification, of being more rash than yourselves.

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‘If Youth but only knew,’ we used to teach you to sing; but now, just because…

Youth has been to the war, it wants to change the next line into…

‘If Age had only to do.’

In so far as this attitude of yours is merely passive, sullen, negative, as it mainly is, despairing of our capacity and anticipating a future of gloom, it is no game for man or woman. It is certainly the opposite of that for which I plead. Do not stand aloof, despising, disbelieving, but come in and help, insist on coming in and helping. After all, we have shown a good deal of courage; and your part is to add a greater courage to it.

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There are glorious years lying ahead of you if you choose to make them glorious.

God’s in His heaven still.

So forward, brave hearts. To what adventures I cannot tell, but I know that your God is watching to see whether you are adventurous. I know that the great partnership is only a first step, but I do not know what are to be the next and the next.

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The partnership is but a tool; what are you to do with it? Very little, I warn you, if you are merely thinking of yourselves; much if what is at the marrow of your thoughts is a future that even you can scarcely hope to see.

Learn as a beginning, how world-shaking situations arise and how they may be countered.

Doubt all your betters who would deny you that right of partnership.

Begin by doubting all such in high places, except, of course, your professors.

But doubt all other professors, yet not conceitedly, as some do, with their nosesin the air; avoid all such physical risks. If it necessitates your pushing some of us out of our places, still push; you will find it needs some shoving. But the things courage can do! The things that even incompetence can do if it works with singleness of purpose. The war has done at least one big thing: it has taken spring out of the year. And, this accomplished, our leading people are amazed to find that the other seasons are not conducting themselves as usual.

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The spring of the year lies buried in the fields of France and elsewhere. By the time the next eruption comes it may be you who are responsible for it and your sons who are in the lava.

All, perhaps, because this year you let things slide. We are a nice and kindly people, but it is already evident that we are stealing back into the old grooves, seeking cushions for our old bones, rather than attempting to build up a fairer future. That is what we mean when we say that the country is settling down.

Make haste, or you will become like us, with only the thing we proudly call experience to add to your stock, a poor exchange for the generous feelings that time will take away. We have no intention of giving you your share. Look around and see how much share Youth has now that the war is over. You got a handsome share while it lasted.

I expect we shall beat you; unless your fortitude be doubly girded by a desire to send a message of cheer to your brothers who fell, the only message, I believe, for which they crave; they are not worrying about their Aunt Jane.

They want to know if you have learned wisely from what befell them; if you have, they will be braced in the feeling that they did not die in vain. Some of them think they did. They will not take our word for it that they did not.

You are their living image; they know you could not lie to them, but they distrust our flattery and our cunning faces. To us they have passed away; but are you who stepped into their heritage only yesterday, whose books are scarcely cold to their hands, you who still hear their cries being blown across the links, are you already relegating them to the shades?

The gaps they have left in this University are among the most honourable of her wounds. But we are not here to acclaim them. Where they are now, hero is, I think, a very little word. They call to you to find out in time the truth about this great game, which your elders play for stakes and Youth plays for its life.

I do not know whether you are grown a little tired of that word hero, but I am sure the heroes are. That is the subject of one of our unfinished plays; M’Connachie is the one who writes the plays. If any one of you here proposes to be a playwright you can take this for your own and finish it. The scene is a school, schoolmasters present, but if you like you could make it a university, professors present. They are discussing an illuminated scroll about a student fallen in the war, which they have kindly presented to his parents ; and unexpectedly the parents enter. They are an old pair, backbent, they have been stalwarts in their day but have now gone small; they are poor, but not so poor that they could not send their boy to college. They are in black, not such a rusty black either, and you may be sure she is the one who knows what to do with his hat. Their faces are gnarled, I suppose, but I do not need to describe that pair to Scottish students. They have come to thank the Senatus for their lovely scroll and to ask them to tear it up.

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At first they had been enamoured to read of what a scholar their son was, how noble and adored by all. But soon a fog settled over them, for this grand person was not the boy they knew. He had many a fault well known to them; he was not always so noble; as a scholar he did no more than scrape through; and he sometimes made his father rage and his mother grieve.

They had liked to talk such memories as these together, and smile over them, as if they were bits of him he had left lying about the house. So thank you kindly, and would you please give them back their boy by tearing up the scroll? I see nothing else for our dramatist to do. I think he should ask an alumna of St. Andrews to play the old lady (indicating Miss Ellen Terry). The loveliest of all young actresses, the dearest of all old ones; it seems only yesterday that all the men of imagination proposed to their beloveds in some such frenzied words as these, ‘As I can’t get Miss Terry, may I have you?’

This play might become historical as the opening of your propaganda in the proposed campaign. How to make a practical advance?

The League of Nations is a very fine thing, but it cannot save you, because it will be run by us. Beware your betters bringing presents.

What is wanted is something run by yourselves. You have more in common with the youth of other lands than Youth and Age can ever have with each other; even the hostile countries sent out many a son very like ours, from the same sort of homes, the same sort of universities, who had as little to do as our youth had with the origin of the great adventure.

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Can we doubt that many of these on both sides who have gone over and were once opponents are now friends?

You ought to have a League of Youth of all countries as your beginning, ready to say to all Governments...

‘We will fight each other but only when we are sure of the necessity.’

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Are you equal to your job, you young men?

If not, I call upon the red-gowned women to lead the way.

I sound to myself as if I were advocating a rebellion, though I am really asking for a larger friendship. Perhaps I may be arrested on leaving the hall. In such a cause I should think that I had at last proved myself worthy to be your Rector.

You will have to work harder than ever, but possibly not so much at the same things; more at modern languages certainly if you are to discuss that League of Youth with the students of other nations when they come over to St. Andrews for the Conference. I am far from taking a side against the classics. I should as soon argue against your having tops to your heads; that way lie the best tops. Science, too, has at last come to its own in St. Andrews. It is the surest means of teaching you how to know what you mean when you say. So you will have to work harder.

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Isaak Walton quotes the saying that doubtless the Almighty could have created a finer fruit than the strawberry, but that doubtless also He never did. Doubtless also He could have provided us with better fun than hard work, but I don’t know what it is. To be born poor is probably the next best thing.

The greatest glory that has ever come to me was to be swallowed up in London, not knowing a soul, with no means of subsistence, and the fun of working till the stars went out.

To have known any one would have spoilt it.

I did not even quite know the language.

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I rang for my boots, and they thought I said a glass of water, so I drank the water and worked on. There was no food in the cupboard, so I did not need to waste time in eating. The pangs and agonies when no proof came. How courteously tolerant was I of the postman without a proof for us; how M’Connachie, on the other hand, wanted to punch his head. The magic days when our article appeared in an evening paper. The promptitude with which I counted the lines to see how much we should get for it. Then M’Connachie’s superb air of dropping it into the gutter.

Oh, to be a free lance of journalism again, that darling jade!

Those were days.

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Too good to last.

Let us be grave.

Here comes a Rector.

But now, on reflection, a dreadful sinking assails me, that this was not really work. The artistic callings , you remember how Stevensor thumped them, are merely doing what yoi’ are clamorous to be at; it is not real work unless you would rather be doing something else. My so-called labours were just M’Connachie running away with me again. Still, I have sometimes worked; for instance, I feel that I am working at this moment. And the big guns are in the same plight as the little ones. Carlyle, the king of all rectors, has always been accepted as the arch-apostle of toil, and has registered his many woes. But it will not do. Despite sickness, poortith, want and all, he was grinding all his life at the one job he revelled in. An extraordinarily happy man, though there is no direct proof that he thought so.

There must be many men in other callings besides the arts lauded as hard workers who are merely out for enjoyment. Our Chancellor? (indicating Lord Haig). If our Chancellor had always a passion to be a soldier, we must reconsider him as a worker. Even our Principal? How about the light that burns in our Principal’s room after decent people have gone to bed? If we could climb up and look in, I should like to do something of that kind for the last time, should we find him engaged in honest toil, or guiltily engrossed in chemistry?

You will all fall into one of those two callings, the joyous or the uncongenial; and one wishes you into the first, though our sympathy, our esteem, must go rather to the less fortunate, the braver ones who ‘turn their necessity to glorious gain’ after they have put away their dreams. To the others will go the easy prizes of life, success, which has become a somewhat odious onion nowadays, chiefly because we so often give the name to the wrong thing. When you reach the evening of your days you will, I think, see, with, I hope, becoming cheerfulness, that we are all failures, at least all the best of us.

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The greatest Scotsman that ever lived wrote himself down a failure:

‘The poor inhabitant below
Was quick to learn and wise to know,
And keenly felt the friendly glow

And softer flame.
But thoughtless follies laid him low.

And stained bis name.’

Perhaps the saddest lines in poetry, written by a man who could make things new for the gods themselves.

If you want to avoid being like Burns there are several possible ways. Thus you might copy us, as we shine forth in our published memoirs, practically without a flaw. No one so obscure nowadays but that he can have a book about him. Happy the land that can produce such subjects for the pen.

But do not put your photograph at all ages into your autobiography. That may bring you to the ground. ‘My Life; and what. I have done with it’; that is the sort of title, but it is the photographs that give away what you have done with it. Grim things, those portraits; if you could read the language of them you would often find it unnecessary to read the book. The face itself, of course, is still more tell-tale, for it is the record of all one’s past life. There the man stands in the dock, page by page; we ought to be able to see each chapter of him melting into the next like the figures in the cinemato-graph. Even the youngest of you has got throug’h some chapters already. When you go home for the next vacation someone is sure to say, ‘John has changed a little; I don’t quite see in what way, but he has changed.’ You remember they said that last vacation. Perhaps it means that you look less like your father. Think that out. I could say some nice things of your betters if I chose.

In youth you tend to look rather frequently into a mirror, not at all necessarily from vanity. You say to yourself, ‘What an interesting face; I wonder what he is to be up to? ‘Your elders do not look into the mirror so often. We know what he has been up to. As yet there is unfortunately no science of reading other people’s faces; I think a chair for this should be founded in St. Andrews.

The new professor will need to be a sublime philosopher, and for obvious reasons he ought to wear spectacles before his senior class. It will be a gloriously optimistic chair, for he can tell his students the glowing truth, that what their faces are to be like presently depends mainly on themselves. Mainly, not altogether,

‘I am the master of my fate,
I am the captain of my soul.’

I found the other day an old letter from Henley that told me of the circumstances in which he wrote that poem. ‘I was a patient,’ he writes, ‘in the old infirmary of Edinburgh. I had heard vaguely of Lister, and went there as a sort of forlorn hope on the chance of saving my foot. The great surgeon received me, as he did and does everybody, with the greatest kindness, and for twenty months I lay in one or other ward of the old place under his care. It was a desperate business, but he saved my foot, and here I am.’ There he was, ladies and gentlemen, and what he was doing during that ‘desperate business’ was singing that he was master of his fate.

If you want an example of courage try Henley. Or Stevenson. I could tell you some stories about these two, but they would not be dull enough for a rectorial address. For courage, again, take Meredith, whose laugh was ‘as broad as a thousand beaves at pasture.’ Take, as I think, the greatest figure literature has still left to us, to be added to-day to the roll of St. Andrews’ alumni, though it must be in absence. The pomp and circumstance of war will pass, and all others now alive may fade from the scene, but I think the quiet figure of Hardy will live on.

I seem to be taking all my examples from the calling I was lately pretending to despise. I should like to read you some passages of a letter from a man of another calling, which I think will hearten you. I have the little filmy sheets here. I thought you might like to see the actual letter; it has been a long journey; it has been to the South Pole. It is a letter to me from Captain Scott of the Antarctic, and was written in the tent you know of, where it was found long afterwards with his body and those of some other very gallant gentlemen, his comrades. The writing is in pencil, still quite clear, though toward the end some of the words trail away as into the great silence that was waiting for them.

It begins:

‘We are pegging out in a very comfortless spot.

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Hoping this letter may be found and sent to you, I write you a word of farewell. I want you to think well of me and my end.’

[After some private instructions too intimate to read, he goes on]:

Goodbye, am not at all afraid of the end, but sad to miss many a simple pleasure which I had planned for the future in our long marches…

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We are in a desperate state, feet frozen, etc., no fuel, and a long way from food, but it would do your heart good to be in our tent, to hear our songs and our cheery conversation…

Later; [it is here that the words become difficult].

We are very near the end…

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We did intend to finish ourselves when things proved like this,

but we have decided to die naturally without.’

I think it may uplift you all to stand for a moment by that tent and listen, as he says, to their songs and cheery conversation. When I think of Scott I remember the strange Alpine story of the youth who fell down a glacier and was lost, and of how a scientific companion, one of several who accompanied him, all young, computed that the body would again appear at a certain date and place many years afterwards. When that time came round some of the survivors returned to the glacier to see if the prediction would be fulfilled; all old men now; and the body reappeared as young as on the day he left them. So Scott and his comrades emerge out of the white immensities always young.

How comely a thing is affliction borne cheerfully, which is not beyond the reach of the humblest of us. What is beauty? It is these hard-bitten men singing courage to you from their tent; it is the waves of their island home crooning of their deeds to you who are to follow them. Sometimes beauty boils over and then spirits are abroad. Ages may pass as we look or listen, for time is annihilated. There is a very old legend told to me by Nansen the explorer, I like well to be in the company of explorers, the legend of a monk who had wandered into the fields and a lark began to sing. He had never heard a lark before, and he stood there entranced until the bird and its song had become part of the heavens. Then he went back to the monastery and found there a doorkeeper whom he did not know and who did not know him. Other monks came, and they were all strangers to him. He told them he was Father Anselm, but that was no help. Finally they looked through the books of the monastery, and these revealed that there had been a Father Anselm there a hundred or more years before. Time had been blotted out while he listened to the lark.

That, I suppose, was a case of beauty boiling over, or a soul boiling over; perhaps the same thing. Then spirits walk.

They must sometimes walk St. Andrews. I do not mean the ghosts of queens or prelates, but one that keeps step, as soft as snow, with some poor student. He sometimes catches sight of it. That is why his fellows can never quite touch him, their best beloved; he half knows some tiling of which they know nothing, the secret that is hidden in the face of the Monna Lisa. As I see him, life is so beautiful to him that its proportions are monstrous. Perhaps his childhood may have been overfull of gladness; they don’t like that. If the seekers were kind he is the one for whom the flags of his college would fly one day. But the seeker I am thinking of is unfriendly, and so our student is ‘the lad that will never be old.’ He often gaily forgets, and thinks he has slain his foe by daring him, like him who, dreading water, was always the first to leap into it.

One can see him serene, astride a Scotch cliff, singing to the sun the farewell thanks of a boy:

‘Throned on a cliff serene Man saw the sun hold a red torch above the farthest seas, arid the fierce island pinnacles put on in his defence their sombre panoplies;

Foremost the white mists eddied, trailed and spun like seekers, emulous to clasp his knees, till all the beauty of the scene seemed one, led by the secret whispers of the breeze.

‘The sun’s torch suddenly flashed upon his face and died; and he sat content in subject ni.^ht and dreamed of an old dead foe that had sought and found him; a beast stirred boldly in his resting-place;

And the cold came;

Man rose to his master-height, shivered, and turned away;

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but the mists were round him.’

If there is any of you here so rare that the seekers have taken an ill-will to him, as to the boy who wrote those lines, I ask you to be careful.

Henley says in that poem we were speaking of:

‘Under the bludgeonings of Chance…

My head is bloody but unbowed.’

A fine mouthful, but perhaps...

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‘My head is bloody and bowed’ is better.

Let us get back to that tent with its songs and cheery conversation. Courage. I do not think it is to be got by your becoming solemn, sides before your time. You must have been warned against letting the golden hours slip by. Yes, but some of them are golden only because we let them slip. Diligence, ambition; noble words, but only if ‘touched to fine issues.’ Prizes may be dross, learning lumber, unless they bring you into the arena with increased understanding. Hanker not too much after worldly prosperity, that corpulent cigar; if you became a millionaire you would probably go swimming around for more like a diseased goldfish. Look to it that what you are doing is not merely toddling to a competency.

Perhaps that must be your fate, but fight it and then, though you fail, you may still be among the elect of whom we have spoken. Many a brave man has had to come to it at last. But there are the complacent toddlers from the start. Favour them not, ladies, especially now that every one of you carries a possible marechal’s baton under her gown.

Happy, ‘it has been said by a distinguished man, ‘is he who can leave college with an un-reproaching conscience and an unsullied heart.

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‘I don’t know; he sounds to me like a sloppy, watery sort of fellow; happy, perhaps, but if there be red blood in him impossible.

Be not disheartened by ideals of perfection Which can be achieved only by those who run away. Nature, that thrifty goddess, ‘never gave you the smallest scruple of her excellence’ for that.

Whatever bludgeonings may be gathering for you, I think one feels more poignantly at your age than ever again in life. You have not our December roses to help you; but you have June coming, whose roses do not wonder, as do ours even while they give us their fragrance, wondering most when they give us most, that we should linger on an empty scene. It may indeed be monstrous but possibly courageous.

Courage is the thing. All goes if courage goes. What says our glorious Johnson of courage: ‘Unless a man has that virtue he has no security for preserving any other.’ We should thank our Creator three times daily for courage instead of for our bread, Which, if we work, is surely the one thing we have a right to claim of Him.

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This courage is a proof of our immortality…

Greater even than gardens’ when the eve is cool.’

Pray for it.

*Who rises from prayer a better man, his prayer is answered.’

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Be not merely courageous, but light-hearted and gay.

There is an officer who was the first of our Army to land at Gallipoli. He was dropped overboard to light decoys on the shore, so as to deceive the Turks as to where the landing was to be. He pushed a raft containing these in front of him. It was a frosty night, and he was naked and painted black. Firing from the ships was going on all around. It was a two hours’ swim in pitch darkness. He did it, crawled through the scrub to listen to the talk of the enemy, who were so near that he could have shaken hands with them, lit his decoys and swam back. He seems to look on this as a gay affair. He is a V.C. now, and you would not think to look at him that he could ever have presented such a disreputable appearance.

Would you? (indicating Colonel Freyberg).

Those men of whom I have been speaking as the kind to fill the fife could all be light-hearted on occasion. I remember Scott by Highland streams trying to rouse me by maintaining that haggis is boiled bagpipes; Henley in dispute as to whether, say, Turgenieff or Tolstoi could hang the other on his watch-chain; he sometimes clenched the argument by casting his crutch at you ; Stevenson responded in the same gay spirit by giving that crutch to John Silver; you remember with what adequate results. You must cultivate this lightheartedness if you are to hang your betters on your watch-chains. Dr. Johnson, let us have him again, does not seem to have discovered in his travels that the Scots are alight-hearted nation.

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Boswell took him to task for saying that the death of Garrick had eclipsed the gaiety of nations.

‘Well, sir,’ Johnson said, ‘ there may be occasions when it is permissible to,’ etc.

But Boswell would not let go.

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‘I cannot see, sir, how it could in any case have eclipsed the gaiety of nations, as England was the only nation before w^om he had ever played.’

Johnson was really stymied, but you would never have known it.

’ Well, sir,’ he said, holing out, ‘I understand that Garrick once played in Scotland, and if Scotland has any gaiety to eclipse, which, sir, I deny’.

Prove Johnson wrong for once at the Students’ Union and in your other societies. I much regret that there was no Students’ Union at Edinburgh in my time. I hope you are fairly noisy and that members are sometimes led out. Do you keep to the old topics?

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King Charles’s head; and Bacon wrote Shakespeare, or if he did not he missed the opportunity of his life. Don’t forget to speak scornfully of the Victorian age; there will be time for meekness when you try to better it.

Very soon you will be Victorian or that sort of thing yourselves; next session probably, when the freshmen come up.

Afterwards, if you go in for my sort of calling, don’t begin by thinking you are the last word in art; quite possibly you are not; steady yourselves by remembering that there were great men before William K. Smith.

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Make merry while you may.

Yet light-heartedness is not for ever and a day.

At its best it is the gay companion of innocence; and when innocence goes, as go it must, they soon trip off together, looking for something younger.

But courage comes all the way:

*Fight on, my men, says Sir Andrew Barton,
I am hurt, but I am not slaine;
I’ll lie me down and bleed a-while,
And then I’ll rise and fight againe.’

Another piece of advice; almost my last. For reasons you may guess I must give this in a low voice. Beware of M’Connachie. When I look in a mirror now it is his face I see. I speak with his voice. I once had a voice of my own, but nowadays I hear it from far away only, a melancholy, lonely, lost little pipe. I wanted to be an explorer, but he willed otherwise. You will all have your M’Connachies luring you off the high road. Unless you are constantly on the watch, you will find that he has slowly pushed you out of yourself and taken your place. He has rather done for me.

I think in his youth he must somehow have guessed the future and been fleggit by it, flichtered from the nest like a bird, and so our eggs were left, cold. He has clung to me, less from mischief than for companionship; I half like him and his penny whistle; with all his faults he is as Scotch as peat; he whispered to me just now that you elected him, not me, as your Rector.

A final passing thought. Were an old student given an hour in which to revisit the St. Andrews of his day, would he spend more than half of it at lectures? He is more likely to be heard clattering up bare stairs in search of old companions. But if you could choose your hour from all the five hundred years of this seat of learning, wandering at your will from one age to another, how would you spend it?

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A fascinating theme; so many notable shades at once astir that St. Leonard’s and St. Mary’s grow murky with them. Hamilton, Melville, Sharpe, Chalmers, down to Herkless, that distinguished Principal, ripe scholar and warm friend, the loss of whom I deeply deplore with you. I think if that hour were mine, and though at St. Andrews he was but a passer-by, I would give a handsome part of it to a walk with Doctor Johnson. I should like to have the time of day passed to me in twelve languages by the Admirable Crichton.

A wave of the hand to Andrew Lang; and then for the archery butts with the gay Montrose, all a-ruffled and ringed, and in the gallant St. Andrews student manner, continued as I understand to this present day, scattering largess as he rides along,

‘But where is now the courtly troupe

That once went riding by ?
I miss the curls of Cante!oupe,
The laugh of Lady Di.’

We have still left time for a visit to a house in South Street, hard by St. Leonard’s. I do not mean the house you mean. I am a Knox man. But little will that avail, for M’Connachie is a Queen Mary man. So, after all, it is at her door we chap, a last futile effort to bring that woman to heel. One more house of call, a student’s room, also in South Street.

I have chosen my student, you see, and I have chosen well; him that sang...

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Life has not since been wholly vain,

And now I bear

Of wisdom plucked from joy and pain

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Some slender share.

But howsoever rich the store...

I’d lay it down
To feel upon my back once more
The old red gown.

Well, we have at last come to an end. Some of you may remember when I began this address ; we are all older now. I thank you for your patience. This is my first and last public appearance, and I never could or would have made it except to a gathering of Scottish students. If I have concealed my emotions in addressing you it is only the thrawn national way that deceives everybody except Scotsmen.

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I have not been as dull as I could have wished to be ; but looking at your glowing faces cheerfulness and hope would keep breaking through. Despite the imperfections of your betters we leave you a great inheritance, for which others will one day call you to account. You come of a race of men the very wind of whose name has swept to the ultimate seas.

Remember,

‘Heaven doth with us as we with torches do
Not light them for themselves... ‘

Mighty are the Universities of Scotland, and they will prevail. But even in your highest exultations never forget that they are not four, but five. The greatest of them is the poor, proud homes you come out of, which said so long ago:

‘There shall be education in this land.’ She, not St. Andrews, is the oldest University in Scotland, and all the others are her whelps.

In bidding you good-bye, my last words must be of the lovely virtue. Courage, my children, and ‘greet the unseen with a cheer.’ ‘Fight on, my men,’ said Sir Andrew Barton. Fight on, you, for the old red gown till the whistle blows.

Alarum - A warning or alarm, especially a call to arms.

Anaemia - Lack of vitality or vigour.

Contumely - Insolent or insulting language or treatment.

Rae - A person who turns your negativity and stigma into the opposite.

Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He was born and educated in Scotland but moved to London, where he wrote a number of successful novels and plays