Prologue: Seven years earlier, during the midst of that troublesome cold fusion incubation period, out of U.S. Navy SPAWAR labs and NASA research/development programs, we find the first contemporary LENR patents, licensing agreements, and advanced LENR engineering contracts. Since 2007 till now, and well before that, the U.S. has quietly worked on developing and utilizing cold fusion science and LENR energy advanced engineering in more ways than any other nation.

U.S. LENR Manhattan Project - U.S. Advanced LENR Technology

The contemporary patent list starts with ones that have been granted. The filing of the first U.S. government LENR patent was in 2007. It has been granted. The next sections of the patent list are Recent (post-2014), Utility (which utilize LENR energy), followed by Historic (pre-2007).

This is an ongoing LENR patent research project and you are invited to join in. The information compiled will prove useful to those working towards cold fusion/LENR energy development and for LENR science historians.

Patent leads and relevant conversations are welcome.

-gbgoble@gmail.com

October 2014 - Rossi H-Cat Independent Report

A Commentary by Elforsk Corporation

Measurements on LENR reactor reported – energy release and isotopes

Yesterday, astounding results from month-long measurements on a so-called “energy catalyser” were reported. The report, written by researchers from Uppsala University, KTH and the University of Bologna, describes a release of heat that cannot be explained by chemical reactions alone. Isotope changes in the analysed fuel instead indicate that nuclear reactions might have occurred at low temperatures. It implies that we may be facing a new way to extract nuclear energy possibly without ionizing radiation and radioactive waste. The discovery could potentially become very important for the world’s energy supply.

The central part of the reactor is a narrow cylinder that is two decimetre long. In the experiments, the reactor operated at temperatures up to about 1 400 degrees Celsius. A net energy release of 1 500 kWh was observed. The thermal energy output was three to four times the electrical energy input. The reactor was filled with 1 gram hydrogen-loaded nickel powder and some additives.

In recent years, Elforsk has followed the development of what has come to be called LENR – Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Elforsk has published an overview summary of LENR. Elforsk has co-funded the work described in the report in addition to earlier measurements that showed an anomalous excess of energy.

If it is possible to safely operate and control these reactions that are now believed to be nuclear reactions, we may see a fundamental transformation of our energy system. Electricity and heat could then be produced with relatively simple components, facilitating a decentralization of energy supply that could be both inexpensive and part of a solution for global climate change.

More research is needed to understand and explain. Let us engage more researchers in trying to validate and then explain how it works.

Magnus Olofsson, CEO Elforsk http://www.elforsk.se/LENR-Matrappor…

This is the New Cold Fusion History Now at Wikipedia

For over 100 years[vague] there has been speculation that nuclear fusion might happen at much lower temperatures by fusing hydrogen absorbed in a metal catalyst. In 1989, a claim by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann (then one of the world’s leading electrochemists) that such cold fusion had been observed caused a brief media sensation before other scientists began heavily criticizing their claim as being incorrect after many failed to replicate the excess heat. Since the initial announcement, cold fusion research has continued by a small community of committed researchers convinced that such reactions do happen and hoping to gain wider recognition for their experimental evidence.

Before the Fleischmann–Pons experiment

The ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen was recognized as early as the nineteenth century by Thomas Graham.[15] In the late 1920s, two Austrian born scientists, Friedrich Paneth and Kurt Peters, originally reported the transformation of hydrogen into helium by spontaneous nuclear catalysis when hydrogen was absorbed by finely divided palladium at room temperature. However, the authors later retracted that report, acknowledging that the helium they measured was due to background from the air.[15][16]

In 1927, Swedish scientist J. Tandberg stated that he had fused hydrogen into helium in an electrolytic cell with palladium electrodes.[15] On the basis of his work, he applied for a Swedish patent for “a method to produce helium and useful reaction energy”.[15] After deuterium was discovered in 1932, Tandberg continued his experiments with heavy water.[15] Due to Paneth and Peters’s retraction, Tandberg’s patent application was eventually denied.[15] His application for a patent in 1927 was denied as he could not explain the physical process.[17]

The final experiments made by Tandberg with heavy water were similar to the original experiment by Fleischmann and Pons.[18] Fleischmann and Pons were not aware of Tandberg’s work.[19][text 1][text 2]

The term “cold fusion” was used as early as 1956 in a New York Times article about Luis W. Alvarez’s work on muon-catalyzed fusion.[20] E. Paul Palmer of Brigham Young University also used the term “cold fusion” in 1986 in an investigation of “geo-fusion”, the possible existence of fusion in a planetary core.[21] IN 1989, Palmer and Jones preferred the term “piezonuclear fusion”, coined by Jones.[21][22]

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Contemporary LENR Technology Patents (reactor)

“Nuclide transmutation device and nuclide transmutation method”

EP 1202290 B1 - Assignee - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

(GRANT) Issued: Dec 4, 2013 - Priority date: Oct 31, 2000 www.google.com/patents/EP1202290B1

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ABSTRACT

The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device (10) that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body (11) that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material (14) that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface (11A) among the two surfaces of this structure body (11). The one surface (11A) side of the structure body (11), for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface (11B) side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body (11) is produced,and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material (14) that undergoes nuclide transmutation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0013] In consideration of the above-described circumstances, it is an object of the present invention to provide a nuclide transmutation device and a nuclide transformation method that can carry out nuclide transmutation with a relatively small-scale device compared to the large-scale devices such as accelerators and nuclear reactors.

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[0014] In order to attain the object related to solving the problems described above, the nuclide transmutation device according to a first aspect of the invention comprises a structure body (either a body that has not yet been covered with a material that is able to undergo nuclide transmutation, that is the structure body 11, the cathode 72, or the multilayer structure body 89, or a body that has been covered with a material that is able to undergo nuclide transmutation, that is the multilayer structure body 102 or the multilayer structure body 32 in the embodiments) that is made of palladium or a palladium alloy, or a hydrogen absorbing metal other than palladium, or a hydrogen absorbing alloy other than a palladium alloy, an absorbing part (the absorbing chamber 31, the absorbing chamber 103, or the electrolytic cell 83 in the embodiments) and a desorption part (the desorption chamber 34, the desorption part 101, or the vacuum container 85 in the embodiments) that are disposed so as to surround the structure body on the sides and form a closed space that can be sealed by the structure body, a high pressurization device (the deuterium tank 35, the deuterium tank 106, or the power source 81 in the embodiments) that makes the absorption part on the side of the surface of the structure body have a state wherein the pressure of the deuterium is relatively high, a low pressurization device (the turbo-molecular pumps 38 and 110, the rotary pumps 39 and 111, and a vacuum exhaust pump 91 in the embodiments) that makes the desorption part side on the other side of the surface of the structure body have a state wherein the pressure of the deuterium is relatively low, and a transmutation material binding device (the step S32, the step S22, the step S44, the step S14 or the step S04a, in the embodiments) that binds the material that undergoes nuclide transmutation on one surface of the structure body material (133Cs, 12C, 88Sr and 23Na in the embodiments) that undergoes nuclide transmutation on the one of the surface of the structure body.

“Enhanced alpha particle emitter”

US 8801977 B2 - Assignee - Brown-Cravens-Taylor

(GRANT) Issued: Aug 12, 2014 - Priority date: Dec 15, 2009 https://www.google.com/patents/US8801…

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ABSTRACT

A composition of matter that experiences an increase rate of radioactive emission is presented. The composition comprises a radioactive material and particles having affinity for Hydrogen or its isotopes. When exposed to Hydrogen, the composition’s emission rate increases. Methods of production are also presented.

BACKGROUND

Many radioactive compositions of matter are known. Each composition of matter has a characteristic rate of emission with respect to its half-life. Interestingly, the emission rate can only be decreased via shielding or by the passage of time. More useful compositions would have a property that could increase their emissions rates in a controllable fashion without the use of shielding.

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Pioneering effort has been put forth by the Applicant toward identifying such compounds. The following works describe the Applicant’s previous efforts directed to identifying desirable compounds and were made available in the provisional application to which the instant application claims priority:

a. “Factors Affecting Success Rate of Heat Generation in CF Cells.”, by Cravens, in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, Calif. 94304.

b. “Practical Techniques In CF Research—Triggering Methods” byCravens et al., PowerPoint slides in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, Mass.: see LENR-CANR.org.

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c. “Practical Techniques In CF Research—Triggering Methods”, by Cravens et al., in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, Mass.: LENR-CANR.org. This paper was presented at the 10th International Conference on Cold Fusion. It may be different from the version published by World Scientific, Inc (2003) in the official Proceedings of the conference.

d. “The Enabling Criteria Of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt”, by Cravens et al. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, D.C.

What has yet to be appreciated is that a composition of matter can be made based on an a priori radioactive material, where the composition, when properly formulated, experiences an increased the radioactive emission rate under proper conditions. Such compositions of matter have value across many fields include semiconductor development, medicine, energy production, or other areas where greater control over radioactive emission would be beneficial.

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Thus, there is still a need for compositions that have controllable emissions rates.

“Power units based on dislocation site techniques”

US 8603405 B2 - Assignee - Npl Associates, Inc.

(GRANT) Issued: Dec. 10, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 29, 2007

https://www.google.com/patents/US8603…

ABSTRACT

A distributed energy system includes a gas-loaded heat generator capable of producing a thermal energy. The system includes a gas source to provide one or more isotopes of hydrogen, a plurality of metallic micro-structures, a gas loading chamber containing the plurality of metallic micro-structures. The gas loading chamber is structured to receive the one or more isotopes of hydrogen from the gas source. The system also includes a gas loading system capable of providing a gas loading pressure to the gas loading chamber containing the plurality of metallic micro-structures with an amount of one or more isotopes of hydrogen to form hydrogen clusters. In one form, the system further includes a thermal transducer capable of converting a first portion of the thermal energy. In still another form, the system additionally includes a waste heat recovery device capable of applying a second portion of the thermal energy.

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“Ceramic element”

US 8485791 B2 - Assignee - Brown-Cravens-Taylor

(GRANT) Issued: Jul 16, 2013 - Priory date: Aug 31, 2009 https://www.google.com/patents/US8485…

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ABSTRACT

A heating element can comprise a ceramic material doped with various elements. The heating element can be heated by forcing a fuel to flow through the ceramic material, where the fuel interacts with the dopants. The interaction can produce energy in the form of heat. Inventive aspects of the present material include apparatus and methods for modulation of the heat energy, physical features providing for an increase in the rate of heat release, optimization of materials and material morphology for quantity and efficiency of heat release and provision for fueling and maintenance.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

One aspect of the inventive subject matter includes a solid state matrix, preferably comprising a ceramic material, forming a main body of a heating element. In a preferred embodiment, the material composing the main body is porous with respect to a fuel compound. Preferred fuel compounds are susceptible to a driving field, preferably an electro-magnetic driving field. For example, a fuel compound could be ionized or polarized. A driving field would then cause the fuel compound to move. The main body preferably includes one or more control points configured to generate a driving field capable of moving the fuel compound within the main body of the element. Furthermore, the material composing the main body can include one or more dopants.

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Without being limited to one or more theories, it is thought that the interaction between the fuel compound and the dopants generate heat. The heat generated can be increased by causing the fuel to move within the main body under the influence of the driving fields. It is also thought that the fuel would be consumed through the interactions resulting in a waste material that could be removed. It is contemplated that the waste material could be of value as well.

The inventive aspects of the subject matter include apparatus and methods for modulation of the energy, physical features providing for an increase in the rate of energy release, optimization of materials for quantity and efficiency of heat release and provision for fueling and maintenance. Preferably the energy released is in the form of heat. The inventive subject matter is also considered to include controlling or otherwise managing production of waste material.

“Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor”

EP 2368252 B1- Assignee - Piantelli, Silvia, Bergomi, Luigi, Ghidini, Tiziano

(GRANT) Issued: January 16th, 2013 - Priority date: Nov 24, 2008 https://www.google.com/patents/EP2368…

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ABSTRACT

A method and a generator to produce energy from nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a metal, comprising the steps of a) production of a determined quantity of micro/nanometric clusters of a transition metal, b) bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters and controlling its pressure and speed, preferably after applying vacuum cycles of at least 10-9 bar between 35 DEG and 500 DEG C for degassing the clusters; c) creating an active core for the reactions by heating the clusters up to a temperature that is higher than the Debye temperature TD of the metal, preferably a temperature close to a temperature at which a sliding of reticular planes occurs, in order to adsorb in the clusters the hydrogen as H- ions; d) triggering the reactions by a mechanical, thermal, ultrasonic, electric or magnetic impulse on the active core, causing the atoms of the metal to capture the hydrogen ions, with liberation of heat, preferably in the presence of a gradient of temperature on the active core; e)removing the heat maintaining the temperature above TD, preferably in the presence of a magnetic and/or electric field of predetermined intensity.; The active core can comprise a sintered material of micro/nanometric clusters, or a clusters powder collected in a container, or a deposit of clusters onto a substrate of predetermined volume and shape, with at least 109 clusters per square centimetre of surface, obtainable by means of methods such as sputtering, spraying evaporation and condensation of metal, epitaxial deposition, by heating up to approaching the melting point and then slow cooling, such methods followed by quick cooling for freezing the cluster structure.

Summary of the invention

[0009] It is therefore a feature of the present invention to provide a method for producing energy by nuclear reactions of hydrogen that is adsorbed in a crystalline structure of a metal, which ensures repeatability of the triggering conditions of the reactions.

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[0010] It is, furthermore, a feature of the present invention to provide such a method for industrially making the precursors of the active cores, and for industrially adsorbing hydrogen in them.

[0011] It is another feature of the present invention to provide an energygenerator that effects the above described nuclear reactions, whose production rate and size are also such that an industrial production is allowed.

[0012] It is similarly a feature of the present invention to provide such a generator, which allows easily adjusting the output power.

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[0013] It is a further feature of the present invention to provide such a generator, which can be easily shut down.

[0014] These and other features are accomplished by a method for producing energy by nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a metal, said method providing the steps of:

prearranging a determined quantity of crystals of a transition metal, said crystals arranged as micro/nanometric clusters that have a predetermined crystalline structure, each of said clusters having a number of atoms of said transition metal which is less than a predetermined number of atoms;

bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters;

heating said determined quantity of clusters up to an adsorption temperature larger than a predetermined critical temperature, that is adapted to cause an adsorption into said clusters of said hydrogen as H- ions, said hydrogen as H- ions remaining available for said nuclear reactions within said active core after said heating step;

triggering said nuclear reactions between said hydrogen as H- ions and said metal within said clusters by an impulsive action exerted on said active core that causes said H- ions to be captured into respective atoms of said clusters, said succession of reactions causing a production of heat;

removing said heat from said active core maintaining the temperature of said active core above said critical temperature, said step of removing said heat carried out according to a predetermined power.

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“Method for producing thermal energy”

CA 2621914 C - Assignee - Purratio Ag, Richard Reichmann, Karl-Ludwig Barth

(Grant) Issued: Aug 15, 2012 - Priority date: Sep 7, 2005 https://www.google.com/patents/CA2621…

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ABSTRACT

The invention relates to a method for producing thermal energy, wherein, by means of a plasma arc which is located between a cathode and an anode, light initial material that is suitable for fusion processes is put into the plasma state by supplying electric energy. Use is made of a cathode made of a metal that is suitable for allowing the particles which are produced in the plasma to be diffused and for allowing a fusion process to take place in the metal grid. The invention has a high degree of efficiency in corresponding systems such that said methods can be used anywhere where fossil and/or renewable and/or chemical fuels are used, in order to use the thermal energy directly or by conversion.

DESCRIPTION

Method For Producing Thermal Energy Specification The invention relates to a process for producing thermal energy wherein, by supplying electric energy, light initial material that is suitable for fusion processes is dissociated, ionized, and then induced to fusion.

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In EP 463 089 B1, the so-called cold fusion is described wherein, by means of electrolysis, deuterium atoms are introduced into a lattice material that has a crystal structure, with the cold fusion being capable of generating surplus heat by means of nuclear fusion in the crystal structure without destroying the lattice material. There, but in connection with the electrolysis, the physical processes with various initial materials and reaction materials are described. In the past, the processes described there were also scientifically analyzed by others and are therefore part of the standard knowledge of a person skilled in the art.

In the meantime, based on this proposal, many experiments and proposals were made, but as far as can be determined, no proposal so far could be realized in a form that would be available to the general public as replacement for the essential common carriers of energy like gas, oil, coal, or uranium used for the manifold applications of energy production, be it for the direct generation of heat, of electric power, or mechanical power. This is true for industrial-scale systems as well as smaller systems for domestic use.

Therefore, this invention addresses the problem of proposing a method that makes it possible to generate surplus heat even in a small compact unit by using cold fusion.

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According to the invention, this problem is solved by a method with the characteristics of the main claim. Additional advantageous implementations are described in the subclaims.

According to the invention, in order to generate thermal energy, a plasma arc (with switchable polarity) located between a cathode and an anode is used in which suitable light initial materials that are capable of fusion processes are put in a plasma state by supplying electric energy. For this, a cathode made of a metal is used that is suitable for allowing the particles produced in the plasma to be diffused and for allowing a fusion process to take place in the metal grid.

The plasma arc located between the electrodes is commonly sustained by means of electric energy. The plasma arc is sustained in an atmosphere consisting of a material that contains the initial materials necessary for a nuclear fusion, e.g. hydrogen, deuterium, or tritium atoms or their ions, as well as lithium atoms and ions. As initial substance, simple water with its natural isotopes can be used or, to increase the efficiency, heavy water, deuterium-loaded water, tritium-substituted water and/or mixtures thereof with normal water. The necessary light initial material can be provided as such in solid, liquid, or gaseous form and then placed in the vicinity of the plasma arc. In gaseous form, it can be injected directly, in liquid form an intermediate evaporation step is necessary, for example directly by the heat of the plasma arc. In the plasma arc, these particles are put in the plasma state and, by operating with an appropriate amperage of above 3 A, are produced in a sufficient quantity to allow a suitable (H+, D+, T+, Li+ ... and not O+ or N+) ion flow in the direction of the cathode. It can be expected that after passing through the cathode fall, the ions will impact on the cathode with a certain impact energy, and that the ion density on the cathode is very high.

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In order to make surplus heat possible at all, the cathode is made of a material that has a metal grid which makes a fusion process possible. The cathode may consist entirely of this material, or may merely be coated with it. Materials that are suitable for this, in principle, are metals from Group IIX and Group IV A of the periodic system and their alloys. Specifically, these are palladium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, iridium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and their alloys. The particles that are moved towards the cathode diffuse into the grid of the cathode material where they effect the nuclear fusion process described in the literature during which surplus heat is generated. This surplus heat can be removed in a wide variety of ways known to a person skilled in the art; in the simplest manner, for example, through removal of the heat by means of a liquid medium so that this heat can then be converted either directly or indirectly, in many different ways, to a different form of energy, like electric or mechanical energy, for example.

“Power producing device”

EP 1426976 B1- Assignees - Vitalii Alekseevitch Kirkinskii, Khmelnikov, Aleksandr Ilyitch, Vatajitsyn, Andrei Ivanovitch

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(GRANT) Issued: Dec 23, 2009 - Priority date:Aug 23, 2001

https://www.google.com/patents/EP1426…

Abstract


The invention relates to the power production using deuterium nuclear interaction in the crystalline structures of deuterides of palladium and other metals activated during phase transitions. The inventive device comprises a reactor containing a working substance, a system for measuring and controlling a gas pressure, a system for heating and temperature control, a system for transferring and using the released heat. The reactor (1) containing the working substance (13) and capable to undergo isostructural phase transformations accompanied by the modification of the deuterium content is embodied in the form of coaxially disposed pipes (2 and 3) provided with valves (4 and 5) which seal the volume therebetween. Heaters (14 and 15) are arranged at the end of said pipes in such a way that it is possible to produce a directionally variable temperature gradient along the longitudinal axis of the reactor. The heat exchanger of a primary circuit (22) is embodied in the form of coaxial pipes (23 and 24) between which a heat carrier (29) passes, and butted against the reactor on the side radially opposite to the position of the heaters. Various modifications of the inventive device enabling to carry out the simultaneous desorption and sorption of deuterium in the working substance on the opposite sides of the reactor, efficiently transfer and use the released excess heat, increase the reliability of the operation and to provide the conditions for the automation thereof are also disclosed.

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Claims


1. POWER GENERATING DEVICE comprising a pressure-tight reactor with a working substance, capable of reversible isostructural phase transformations accompanied with deuterium content change, a system for gas pressure measuring and control, a system for heating and temperature control, a system for transfer and use of released heat, wherein said reactor with said working substance is embodied as coaxial pipes provided with seals; heaters and temperature sensors of said system for heating and temperature control are arranged at the end parts of said pipes outside of the reactor so that a directionally variable temperature gradient can be produced along said reactor;
said system for transfer and use of released power comprises a primary heat exchanger, arranged at the reactor on the side radial opposite the position of said heaters and joined to tubes with a heat carrier, and also hydraulic pump, secondary heat exchanger and heat-insulating shell.

“Pulsed low energy nuclear reaction power generators”

EP 1656678 B1- Assignee: Energetics Technologies, LLC

(GRANT) Issued: May 4, 2011- Priority date: Aug 12, 2003 https://www.google.com/patents/EP1656…

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ABSTRACT

A low energy nuclear reaction power generator has different cells in which hydrogenous atoms are driven by different methods to increase atom-packing in a lattice and to increase the flux of hydrogenous atoms. An electrolytic cell is provided containing an electrically-conductive electrolyte, a glow discharge cell and a catalyst cell are each provided containing a gas, and a high pressure electrolytic ultrasonic cell is provided including a first section containing a gas and a second section containing an electrolyte, in which is provided an anode-cathode electrode pair. Applied across these electrodes is a train of electrical packets, each comprised of a cluster of pulses. The amplitude and duration of each pulse, the duration of intervals between pulses, and the duration of intervals between successive packets in the train are in a predetermined pattern in accordance with superwaving waves in which each wave is modulated by waves of different frequency.

“Method of maximizing anharmonic oscillations in deuterated alloys” US5411654A Filed: Jul. 2, 1993 GRANT issued: Feb. 5, 1995 - Inventors: Brian S. Ahern, Keith H. Johnson, Harry R. Clark Jr. - Assignee: Hydroelectron Ventures Inc, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US Air Force - This invention was made with U.S. Government support under contract No. F19628-90-C-0002, awarded by the Air Force. The Government has certain rights in this invention. https://patents.google.com/patent/US5411654A

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“System and method for generating particles”

US 8419919 B1 - Assignee - Jwk International Corporation, The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy

(GRANT) Issued: Apr 16, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 14, 2007 https://www.google.com/patents/US8419…

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ABSTRACT

A method may include the steps of supplying current to the electrodes of an electrochemical cell according to a first charging profile, wherein the electrochemical cell has an anode, cathode, and electrolytic solution; maintaining a generally constant current between the electrodes; exposing the cell to an external field either during or after the termination of the deposition of deuterium absorbing metal on the cathode; and supplying current to the electrodes according to a second charging profile during the exposure of the cell to the external field. The electrolytic solution may include a metallic salt including palladium, and a supporting electrolyte, each dissolved in heavy water. The cathode may comprise a second metal that does not substantially absorb deuterium, such as gold. The external field may be a magnetic field.

DESCRIPTION CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/919,190, filed Mar. 14, 2007, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Generating Particles,” the content of which is fully incorporated by reference herein.

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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The embodiments of the invention relate generally to the field of electrochemistry.

Generated particles may be captured by other nuclei to create new elements, to remediate nuclear waste, to treat cancerous tumors, or to create strategic materials. Previous efforts to create a reproducible method and corresponding system to generate particles during electrolysis of palladium in heavy water have been unsuccessful.

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Therefore, a need currently exists for a reproducible method and corresponding system that can generate particles.

“A hybrid fusion fast fission reactor”

WO 2009108331 A3- Assignee - Lawrence Parker Galloway Forsley

Publication date: Dec 30, 2009 - Priority date: Feb 25, 2008 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2009…

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ABSTRACT

A hybrid nuclear fusion fast fission reactor is disclosed. The hybrid reactor may include an electrolyte solution comprised of PdCI2 a conductive salt and D2O, an anode of a noble metal, a cathode consisting of a conductive high Z (atomic number greater than 46) material wound around a deuteride-forming actinide nuclear fuel element, a power source providing constant current to the + anode and the - cathode, an applied power profile for fabricating the PdD nanoalloy, and a co-deposition of a PdD nanoalloy on to the high Z cathode winding as well as the nuclear fuel element. A preferred embodiment stablizes the actinide deuteride nuclear fuel element from hydrogen isotope de-loading. A preferred embodiment initiates deuterium-deuterium fusion in the deuterized fuel element and fissioning deuterized fuel element actinides. A preferred embodiment includes surrounding spent nuclear fuel elements with deuteride nuclear fuel elements that will fast fission the spent fuel elements. Another preferred embodiment includes surrounding the deuteride nuclear fuel elements with spent fuel elements as fast neutron reflectors that will also fission.

Summary of Invention

[022] In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, there is disclosed a means to fabricate a highly deuterided actinide fuel element by the electrolysis of a heavy water solution (D2O) consisting of PdCb and a conductive salt with a cylindrical anode of a noble metal, a cathode consisting of a conductive high Z (greater than atomic number 46) material that doesn’t form a deuteride, wound around a less electrically conductive actinide metal fuel element, a power source providing constant current to the + anode and the - cathode, an applied power profile for fabricating a PdD nanoalloy, by the co-deposition of a PdD nano-alloy on to the high Z cathode winding and said fuel element resulting in nuclear fission of the said fuel element using fast neutrons produced within the PdD nano-alloy and primary and secondary deuterium- deuterium fusion reactions within said fuel element. The resulting fission and fusion heat can be used to generate power.

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[023] An alternative embodiment results in a heavily deuterided actinide fuel element that is electrolytically loaded and then sealed against isotopic hydrogen desorption, requiring no further electrolytic loading. Said sealed loaded fuel element may then be pulsed by an external acoustic, thermal, radio-frequency or other source providing short duration impulses resulting in periodic actinide metal lattice deuteride loading excursions and consequent neutron generation. This embodiment may be operated independently of an electrolytic bath but with a thermal bath to remove the heat from said loaded fuel element fusion and fission processes.

[024] Either embodiment may be used in a conventional nuclear spent fuel pool with a plurality of said deuterided fuel elements surrounding one conventional spent nuclear fuel element in a ring or other other geometry, or a plurality of said spent fuel elements further surrounded by an outer perimeter of spent fuel elements acting as fast neutron reflectors causing there to be a higher percentage of fast neutrons at the center of the ring or similar geometry of a plurality of deuterided fuel elements . Said inner spent fuel elements and outer perimeter spent fuel elements will undergo neutron capture and fission with the highest percentage of fission occurring in the center where the neutron flux and neutron energy is highest. The resulting fission heat can be used to co- generate heat in a conventional nuclear power plant where the spent fuel elements are stored.

[025] The invention describes a hybrid nuclear fusion fast fission reactor in a vessel comprising an electrolyte solution comprised of PdCb a conductive salt and D2O; an anode of a conductive noble metal provided within said electrolyte solution; a cathode comprising a conductive high Z (atomic number greater than 46) material wound around a metallic actinide nuclear fuel element; a power source providing constant current to the + anode and the - cathode; an applied power profile for fabricating the PdD nano-alloy; and an electrolytically co-deposited PdD nano-alloy on to the high Z cathode winding and on said fuel element. The said cathode is wound around said fuel element and acts as a neutron generator. Said cathode is comprised of a composition of the non-deuteriding series selected from the group consisting of platinum, gold, mercury, lead and bismuth. The nuclear fuel element is electrolytically deuterided beyond the actinide-deuterium beta phase adapting it, by the electrolytic loading of deuterium, to provide lattice fluctuations which initiate primary and secondary deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions at sites in the actinide metal lattice producing fast neutrons. These fast neutrons fission the actinides comprising said nuclear fuel element.

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“Method and apparatus for performing nuclear fusion”

EP 2701157 A2 - Assignee: Andrej Galuga

Inventors: Andrej Galuga, Sergei Tcvetkov, Stanislav Vostrognutov, Alexander Losenkov

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Publication date: Feb 26, 2014 - Priority date: Aug 22, 2012

https://www.google.com/patents/EP2701…

DESCRIPTION translated from German

[0015] Probably the closest prior art with respect to the system of the invention can be found in the description of the patent RU 2056656 C1; published on 20.03.1996 , In this device, the deuterium is absorbed at a suitable metallic crystal lattice. It consists of a reactor and an input socket. Inside of this reactor body, a metallic pattern is installed and a device for evacuating the inner space of the reactor.Inlet nozzles communicate with the interior of reaction nozzles by a first valve. There is a heating means for the initial metallic body provided, a device for detecting the temperature of said output member, a device for measuring the pressure inside the reactor and a source which is filled with the introduced gaseous deuterium. Another Durchgangsdüse communicates via a second valve with the interior of the reactor for admitting the gaseous deuterium in the reactor. The device described here is characterized by low to services and intensities.

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[0016] From the above disadvantages of the prior art described results, the problem initiating the invention, a method and a suitable for this purpose reactor for nuclear fusion on the basis of the so-called gas loading method to develop the power and intensity, in particular the energy released in the form of, for example, radiation is increased and neutrons are released. The energy released should be used arbitrarily.

[0017] The solution to the problem is achieved by the vacuum thermal degassing of the mounted in the reactor, output body one at a temperature not higher than 80% of the melting temperature of the starting body, then the temperature of the output body is reduced to a value in is from 42 to 45% above the melting temperature. Before saturation of the output member with the gaseous deuterium is carried out a mixture gas of the gaseous deuterium to the atmospheric air, wherein the proportion of from 0.1 to 4.09 vol .-% of the volume value of the gas mixture. This gas mixture is introduced into the reactor at a rate that the heating of the output member 50 - ensures 200 degrees per second. The released energy can for example be used to generate electricity or nuclear transmutation.

[0018] The inventive method of fusion and in that the proportion of the atmospheric air in the respective mixture of (atmospheric) air is kept covered with the gaseous deuterium under a boundary from 1.0 to 4.09% based on the total volume of the gas mixture obtained is different and the above mixture is introduced at a rate such that the heating of the starting body for example of titanium hydride up to 90-180 ° C / s is guaranteed.

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[0019] By the introduction of the additional step in the process, a mixture of gaseous deuterium atmosphere with air in a proportion of 0.1 to 4.09% of the total volume of the gas mixture, and by admitting the mixture into the reactor at a rate such that in the during the saturation of the output member of titanium hydride, heating of the starting body to 50 by deuterium - causes 200 ° C, and the subsequent carrying out of the vacuum thermal degassing of the starting body in the reactor at a temperature of not more than 90% of the melting temperature and by subsequent cooling of the output member to a value of 42-45% of the melting temperature, can be improved reaction result register, that is, an increased amount of vacant energy or radiation, and therefore achieve a significant improvement over the prior art.

[0020] A possible partial explanation for the significant improvement of the reaction results found possibly in the presence of various components of the atmospheric air. In particular, the presence of oxygen and / or nitrogen seems to have influence on the course of the nuclear fusion reaction. It would also be conceivable that other, contained in the atmospheric air trace substances take a yet unexplained influence. As a result, the degree of released radiation intensity is increased, it is more heat energy is generated, thus increasing the total power of the nuclear fusion reaction.

[0027] Another advantageous application branch of cold nuclear fusion could be that the increased radiation, especially the nascent neutron and / or gamma radiation, is used for transmutation. The nuclear transmutation of radioactive isotopes for the conversion to other (non-radioactive) isotopes is particularly desirable. For example, could thus radioactive waste (uranium isotopes or similar), as obtained for example as waste at nuclear power plants can be effectively disposed of or converted, at least in less hazardous waste.

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“Resonantly excited hybrid fusion of hydrogen isotopes absorbed in solid matter”

EP 1423858 A1 - Assignee - Mendes Rui Vilela

Publication date:Jun 2, 2004 - Priority date:Aug 30, 2001

Re-examination initiated: July 10, 2014

https://www.google.com/patents/EP1423…

DESCRIPTION

Resonantly excited hybrid fusion of hydrogen isotopes absorbed in solid matter.

Hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium) are easily absorbed into metals like palladium or titanium, forming an interstitial solid solution. The hydrogen isotopes occupy the free spaces between the atoms of the metal lattice.

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For the example of deuterons in a palladium lattice, in static conditions and when the number of deuterons is smaller or equal to the number of palladium nuclei, the closest distance between the deuterons is about twice the internuclear distance in an ordinary deuterium gas molecule. For higher concentrations, even when two deuterons are contained in one of the octahedral cages of the fee lattice, the equilibrium distance is estimated to be at least 30% larger than in the gas molecule. The conclusion is that, in equilibrium conditions, there is no special enhancement of the Coulomb barrier penetration factor and therefore, except maybe for occasional and irreproducible bursts corresponding to improbable large deviations from the equilibrium configurations, spontaneous fusion reactions of the interstitial deuterium are extremely unlikely.

In ground state configurations, the collision probability between two of the absorbed hydrogen isotopes is a vanishing or absolutely negligible quantity. Nevertheless there are relatively low-lying excited states for which the overlap probability is non-negligible. These are, what may be called quantum collision states, some of these levels corresponding (in the scar sense) to unstable classical configurations of the potential. The general existence of such states for potentials with saddle points has been shown in [Phys. Lett. A239 (1998) 223].

Calculations for several configurations with realistic physical parameters have shown that, for hydrogen isotopes absorbed in metal lattices, the quantum collision levels are separated from the ground state by energies in the ultraviolet - low X-ray range. Therefore they cannot be accessed by thermal excitations but may be resonantly excited by electromagnetic radiation.

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This leads to the proposal of a new process for energy production by nuclear fusion reactions:

(1) The metal lattice is charged with the hydrogen isotope up to a level in which a large of number of the interstitial cages have at least two isotope units. (2) The quantum collision states are excited by resonant electromagnetic radiation (typically in the ultraviolet - low X-ray range).

“Devices and methods for heat generation”

US 20140326711 A1 - Assignee - Leonardo Corporation

Publication date: Nov 6, 2014 - Priority date: May 2, 2013

https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

SUMMARY

This Summary is provided to introduce in a simplified form concepts that are further described in the following detailed descriptions. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it to be construed as limiting the scope of the claimed subject matter.

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According to at least one embodiment, a reactor device includes a sealed vessel defining an interior, a fuel material within the interior of the vessel, and a heating element proximal the vessel. The fuel material includes a solid comprising nickel and hydrogen.

In at least one example, the sealed vessel contains no more than a trace amount of gaseous hydrogen. The sealed vessel is sealed against gas ingress or egress.

In at least one example, a first ceramic shell is between the sealed vessel and the heating element, and a second ceramic shell surrounds the first ceramic shell and the heating element.

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The sealed vessel may consist of steel. In at least one example, the sealed vessel includes a steel tube having two ends sealed by steel caps.

In at least one example, the interior of the sealed vessel is cylindrical, and the fuel material is uniformly distributed within the interior of the sealed vessel.

In at least one example, the heating element surrounds the sealed vessel.

In at least one example, a first ceramic shell surrounding the sealed vessel is surrounded by the heating element, and a second ceramic shell surrounds the heating element.

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The heating element may include a resistor coil assembly.

In at least one embodiment, a method includes providing a sealed vessel, heating the sealed vessel with an input amount of energy without ingress or egress of material into or out of the sealed vessel; and receiving from the sealed vessel an output amount of thermal energy exceeding the input amount of energy.

In at least one example, heating the sealed vessel includes heating the sealed vessel from outside the sealed vessel.

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In at least one example, a ratio defined by dividing the output amount of thermal energy by the input amount of energy exceeds 5.0.

In at least one example, heating the sealed vessel entails initiating a reaction within the vessel of a fuel material having a specific energy greater than 1×105watt×hour/kg.

In at least one example, heating the sealed vessel includes initiating a reaction within the vessel of a fuel material having a specific energy greater than that of any chemical reaction based energy source.

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Heating the sealed vessel may entail alternating a heating element between on and off states. In east least one example, alternating a heating element between on and off states is achieved by periodically providing electrical current to a resistor coil assembly.

In at least one example, the sealed vessel contains a solid fuel material and no more than a trace amount of gaseous hydrogen. The solid fuel material may include nickel and hydrogen.

In one or more embodiments, a system for converting thermal input and fuel into a heat output is provided. The system includes a device that includes a sealed vessel defining an interior, a heating element proximal the vessel and being selectively activatable to provide heat to the sealed vessel, and a fuel material within the interior of the vessel that comprises a solid including nickel and hydrogen. The interior of the sealed vessel is not preloaded with a pressurized gas when in an initial operating state before activation of the heating element. The system further includes a temperature measuring gauge in communication with the device and configured for monitoring the temperature thereof and a controller in communication with the heating element and the temperature measuring gauge. The controller is configured to activate the heating element in response to measurements from the temperature measuring gauge.

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“Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction”

US 20110005506 A1 - Assignee - Andrea Rossi

Publication date: Jan 13, 2011 - Priority date: Apr 9, 2008 https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

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ABSTRACT

A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000 C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions, and has been stimulated by the well known requirement of finding energy sources alternative to fossil sources, to prevent atmospheric carbon dioxide contents from being unnecessarily increased.

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For meeting the above need non polluting energy sources should be found which do not involve health risks, are economically competitive with respect to oil sources susceptible to be easily discovered and exploited and naturally abundant.

Many of the above alternative energy sources have already been explored and operatively tested even on an industrial scale, and comprise biomasses, solar energy used both for heating and photovoltaic electric generation purposes, aeolian energy, fuel materials of vegetable or agricultural nature, geothermal and sea wave energy and so on.

A possible alternative to natural oil, is the uranium-fission nuclear energy. However, yet unresolved problems affect nuclear energy such as great safety and waste material processing problems, since, as is well known, radioactive waste materials remain dangerously active for thousands or millions of years, with consequent great risks for persons living near radioactive waste disposal-off places.

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To the above the fact should also be added that, at present, a nuclear fusion based on a laser actuated inertial confining method does not allow to make efficient power systems.

The above drawbacks are also true for deuterium-tritium fusion processes, as shown by the operating times estimated for the ITER project, which should within the year 2025 should allow to construct power systems according to the so-called DEMO project to make, within the year 2035, the first fusion power station.

In fact, up to now, the so-called “cold” fusion, after an early announcement by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 (M. Fleischmann, M. Hawkins, S. Pons: Journal Electroanal. Chem., 261,301-1989), notwithstanding several exploiting attempts on a world-wise scale, has not provided useful and reliable systems capable of generating energy for normal, industrial or domestic applications.

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The most intelligent work performed in the fusion field, which work has been accurately studied by the present inventor for practicing his invention, is a study of Prof. Sergio Focardi, (Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Univerità di Bologna), and Prof. Francesco Piantelli, (Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Siena) as disclosed in the following bibliographic documents....

“Nanostructured thin layers having high catalytic activity on surfaces of nickel and its alloys and a process for obtaining them”

EP 2461902 A2 - Assignee - Lam.ba. Engineering & Consulting S.r.l.

Inventors: Francesco Celani, Misa Nakamura, Paolo Marini, Stefano Vittorio Di

Publication date: Jun 13, 2012 - Priority date: Aug 7, 2009 https://www.google.com/patents/EP2461…

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ABSTRACT

Thin nanostructured layers on surfaces of nickel or its alloys for quickly achieving high hydrogen adsorption values (H/Ni ~ 0.7) through direct metal/gas contact. The said layers are produced by a process comprising the step of oxidising the said surfaces, applying a film of aqueous silica sol to them, subsequent heating in an -oxidising atmosphere and final activation through reduction in a reducing atmosphere.

DESCRIPTION

Nanostructured thin layers having high catalytic activity on surfaces of nickel and its alloys and a process for obtaining them.

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Introduction

This invention relates to thin layers having high catalytic capacity produced on nickel surfaces and a process for obtaining them, the said layers being characterised by a very high specific surface area and the fact that they essentially comprise thermally-stable nanostructures. The said nanostructured layers are characterised by high adhesion to the substrate surface and high resistance to temperature and thermal shocks. Their catalytic properties are explained by the increase in capacity and speed of adsorption of hydrogen and its isotopes by nickel and its alloys.

In particular, through the technique of adsorption by direct Ni/H2 contact, the invention makes it possible to obtain very high values of hydrogen adsorption in Ni (H/Ni atomic ratio ~ 0.7) quickly and economically. These storage values open up the possibility of using nickel as a source of hydrogen in fuel cells.

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This invention may also be particularly useful in that field of experimental activity known to those skilled in the art by the names of Cold Fusion or Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, with the aim of generating heat of probably nuclear origin.

“Amplification of energetic reactions”

ED Note: The following patent has a sister patent from 1993 assigned to MIT.

US 20110233061 A1 - Assignee - Brian S. Ahern

Publication date: Sep 29, 2011- Priority date: Mar 29, 2010 https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

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ABSTRACT

Methods and apparatus for energy production through the amplification of energetic reactions. A method includes amplifying an energy release from a dispersion of nanoparticles containing a concentration of hydrogen/deuterium nuclei, the nanoparticles suspended in a dielectric medium in a presence of hydrogen/deuterium gas, wherein an energy input is provided by high voltage pulses between two electrodes embedded in the dispersion of nanoparticles.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Nanoscale metal particles that dissolve hydrogen isotopes can promote nuclear reactions under near equilibrium conditions. The reaction rates are greatly enhanced by the addition of localized energy input, which can include, for example, dielectric discharges, terahertz electromagnetic radiation or ultrasonic energy beyond a specific threshold.

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Methods and apparatus of the present invention are not limited to deuterium with heavy water loading as hydrogen loading can produce as much excess energy. Hydrogen can be substituted with deuterium and water with heavy water in all aspects of the present disclosure.

Hydrated/deuterated nanoparticles are an important feature of the present invention. Hydrated/deuterated nanoparticles are prone to energetic reactions when processed into a narrow size regime. Hydrated/deuterated nanoparticles processed between 3 and 20 nanometers (nm), and preferably between 3 and 12 nm are optimal for amplifying energy output.

Hydrated/deuterated nanoparticles larger than approximately 20 nm do not provide the anharmonic oscillations of the nanolattice metal atoms needed to drive the anharmonic oscillations of the dissolved deuterons to amplitudes sufficient to initiate interactions at a sub atomic level.

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Having nano particles in size range of 3 to 20 nm exhibits a feedback mechanism that favors large amplitude, low frequency vibrational modes of the metal matrix nuclei; this nanoscale phenomenon is generally referred to as Energy Localization.

For the purposes of the present invention, energy localization means that the metal nanoparticle nuclei will acquire vibrational energy from the environment and ‘up-pump it’ to increase the amplitude of the anharmonic modes of the nanoparticle nuclei. This process in turn, further amplifies the oscillations of the dissolved hydrogen nuclei within each nanoparticle, which in turn enhances the rate of energetic reactions in and on the nanoparticles.

“Exothermic fusion”

US 20130019855 A1- Assignee - Archie Lou Tengzelius

Publication date: Jan 24, 2013 - Priority date: Jul 18, 2011 www.google.com/patents/US20130019855A1

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ABSTRACT

This discovery describes a new process to produce thermal energy through mass conversion under mild conditions by using hydride containing materials to be activated in the presence of group 10 and 11 elements causing nuclear fusion followed by disassociation of the unstable result yielding stable products and thermal energy.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a process to produce thermal energy by fusion of protons orbited by two electrons, also referred to as hydride ions with a nickel or copper nuclei followed by disintegration of the resulting unstable nucleus resulting in heat energy and products whose total mass is predicted to be diminished by current theories of Physics.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the discovery that hydride ions contained in finely divided magnesium hydride prepared under dry inert conditions are activated by heating in the presence of certain finely divided nickel or copper nuclei causing fusion into unstable products. Said products subsequently disintegrate into stable species with all gamma rays absorbed by the presence of inert forms of boron present in the reaction mixture.

CLAIMS(6)

1. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction by mixing magnesium hydride, copper hydride, lithium borohydride and nickel hydride powders and placing said mixture in a steel cavity capable of being tightly sealed. A self sustained exothermic reaction is initiated by placing said aforementioned module or multiples thereof into an environment which can be heated such as a closed pressure vessel containing water and applying external thermal energy only sufficient to raise the temperature to 200 Celsius, after which time steam can be released through a pressure relief valve and feed water added to maintain a constant level in the said vessel.

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2. A method of controlling the reaction rate as described in claim 1. by adjusting the temperature within the containment vessel after initiation.

3. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction by mixing finely divided magnesium hydride, copper and lithium borohydride and placing said mixture in a steel cavity capable of being tightly sealed. A self sustained exothermic reaction is initiated by placing said aforementioned module or multiples thereof into an environment which can be heated such as a closed pressure vessel containing water and applying external thermal energy only sufficient to raise the temperature to 200 Celsius, after which time steam can be released through a pressure relief valve and feed water added to maintain a constant level in the said vessel or an open vessel containing a heat transfer fluid and applying sufficient thermal energy to raise its temperature until a self sustained isothermal reaction initiates and withdrawing sufficient thermal energy from said fluid to control the reaction rate.

4. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction as described inclaim 3 whereby finely divided nickel, raney nickel or nickel hydride is substituted for copper.

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5. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction as described in previous claims whereby finely divided boron, boron nitride or boron carbide is substituted for lithium borohydride.

6. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction as described in previous claims whereby solid constituents are suspended in a heat transfer fluid inert to the substances contained therein and the reaction conditions.

“Explosive nuclear fusion device”

US 20130087062 A1- Assignee - Archie Lou Tengzelius

Publication date: Apr 11, 2013 - Priority date: Oct 11, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

This discovery describes a new process to produce large violent explosive quantities of thermal energy with a device through mass conversion under mild conditions by using hydride containing materials to be activated in the presence of group VIIIB and VIB elements causing nuclear fusion followed by sudden disassociation of the unstable result yielding stable products and large excess thermal energy.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an explosive admixture within a sealed container detonated by heating to bring about a sudden release of large excess thermal energy as a result of nuclear fusion. Protons orbited by two electrons, also referred to as hydride ions provided by a finely divided metal hydride powder and mixed with a nickel or copper powder or derivatives thereof are caused to fuse by heating to a temperature exceeding 200 Celsius followed by disintegration of the resulting unstable nucleus yielding an explosive thermal energy release and products whose total mass is predicted to be diminished by current theories of Physics.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the discovery that hydride ions contained in finely divided metal hydride prepared under dry inert conditions are activated by heating in the presence of finely divided nucleus within nickel or copper or chemical compounds thereof. Fusion with said nuclei results in unstable products. Said products subsequently explosively disintegrate into stable species accompanied by extensive liberation of heat energy.

CLAIMS(7)

1. A method for creating an explosive by mixing a finely divided metal hydride powder prepared and handled under inert atmosphere conditions and Group VIIIB or Group VIB metals or compounds thereof also as a finely divided powder prepared and handled within an inert atmosphere and placing said mixture in a steel cavity capable of being tightly sealed. A self sustained violent exothermic explosive reaction is initiated by heating the capsule to a temperature above 200 Celsius.

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2. A method of initiating the explosion as described in claim 1, by igniting a thermite coating formed around the steel capsule containing the powder admixture.

3. A method for catalyzing the explosive as described in previous claims by admixing up to 10 percent by weight of lithium borohydride in a finely divided state prepared and handled under a dry inert atmosphere.

4. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction as described in previous claims whereby finely divided boron, boron nitride or boron carbide is substituted for lithium borohydride.

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5. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby finely divided nickel, raney nickel or nickel hydride prepared under dry inert atmosphere is admixed with magnesium hydride prepared by repeated cycles of heating magnesium turnings under a hydrogen atmosphere followed by ball milling using charcoal in small mounts to facilitate embrittlement. Repeating this process many times results in a very reactive magnesium hydride of high purity which was carefully handled in a dry box under hydrogen atmosphere for explosive preparation.

6. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby solid constituents are suspended in inert to the substances contained therein.

7. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby solid powdered constituents are mechanically compressed prior to encapsulating within a steel chamber.

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“Fusion reactor”

WO2015012807A1 Assignee: David Schulte

Publication date: Jan 29, 2015 Priority date: Jul 23, 2013

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015…

ABSTRACT

The present invention provides a fusion reactor for generating electricity comprising a high-pressure core having an interior chamber. The interior chamber is filled with a volume of one or more pressurized fuels. A microwave frequency generator is provided for resonating the fuel at a high radio frequency, typically 2.4 GHz or higher, and means for securing and emitting the frequency generator into the core are provided. In addition, electrical conductors are positioned in the core to effectuate the transformation of the fuel into a plasma state and to facilitate the free flow of electrons to generate electrical current.

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[0005] FIRST GENERATION FUSION REACTIONS

[0006] D+D→ 3He (0.82 MeV)+ n (2.45 MeV)→ p (3.02 MeV) + T (1.01 MeV) [0007] D+T→ 4He (3.52 MeV)+ n (14.07 MeV)

[0008] SECOND GENERATION FUSION REACTION

[0009] D+3He→ 4He (3.67 MeV) + p (14.68 MeV)

[0010] THIRD GENERATION FUSION REACTIONS

[0011] p+ B→ 3 4He (8.7 MeV)

[0012] 3He+3He→ 4He+ p (12.9 MeV)

“Deuterium Reactor”

US 20130235963 A1 - Assignee - Pharis Edward Williams

Publication date: Sep 12, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 12, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

The Deuterium Reactor is a fusion reactor whose design is based upon a non-singular electrostatic required by the quantization of electric charge. This potential allows for a significant reduction in the fusion barrier of deuterium nuclei when these nuclei are held in close proximity, as within a crystal, and preconditioned using a magnetic field. This manner of fusion barrier reduction produces direct fusion of two deuterium nuclei into a helium nucleus without attendant hazardous radiation of classical fusion reactors. The energy released in the deuterium reactor may be used in different ways for different applications and its use will result in a significant reduction in fossil fuel use, a significant reduction in radioactive waste by replacing fission reactors, and a significant impact upon the world economy.

DESCRIPTION

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

$25,000 was received in 2008 from NSWC, Indian Head Division, to design experiments, review reports, and analyze data. The experiments verified heating using powdered/granulated fuel.

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1: This figure depicts the configuration of a deuteron nucleus consisting of two protons orbiting around an electron.

FIG. 2: Two deuterium nuclei being nudged together while a magnetic field aligns their spins causing the protons of one nucleus to orbit 90 degrees from the protons in the neighboring nucleus.

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FIG. 3: Two aligned deuterium nuclei may fuse together into a helium nucleus with the four protons orbiting in a plane 90 degrees from the axis of two electrons.

FIG. 4: This figure shows how permanent magnets may be used to align the spins of the deuterium nuclei in the sample.

FIG. 5: Thermo-electric diodes and metal hydride crystal fuel cells may be stacked together so that heat generated from a single fuel sample may power several diodes.

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FIG. 6: Integrated reactor design showing cooling channels and electrical connections.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

A crystalline hydride made with deuterium nuclei (FIG. 1), while in a magnetic field strong enough to align the atoms’ spins in the same direction (FIG. 2), hold the atoms in the desired position for them to preferentially fuse and form a helium atom (FIG. 3). The rate of fusion depends upon quantum tunneling of the deuterons through the non-singular potentials of the nearby protons and the electron of the other deuterium nuclei. The rate of quantum tunneling, and therefore, the rate of fusion is controlled by the alignment of the deuterium nuclei and by either changing the separation of the two deuterons, their relative velocity, or both. The specific separation of the nuclei is set by the crystalline lattice spacing but their relative vibration velocity is determined by the temperature of the crystalline lattice. Therefore, while the magnetic field provides the alignment and the primary means of controlling the fusion rate, the temperature provides an additional means of controlling the rate of reaction and the rate of energy production.

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“Nuclear fusion electrical organ (with spherical periphery positive static electric field)“

CN 103021476 A - Inventors: 詹承镇 - Applicant: 詹承镇

Publication date: Apr 3, 2013 - Priority date: Sep 20, 2011 http://www.google.com/patents/CN1030…

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ABSTRACT translated from Chinese

The invention provides a nuclear fusion electrical organ (with a spherical periphery positive static electric field) and belongs to the fields of energy, automatic control and electromagnetism, and the nuclear fusion electrical organ is used for overcoming the defects that controlled thermonuclear fusion has poor feasibility, even if the thermonuclear fusion succeeds, the economy and energy loss outweights the gain as a magnetic field ‘pipe’ consumes a great quantity of electric energy and the cost of the equipment is high. The main technical characteristics of the nuclear fusion electric organ are as follows: a spherical container 1 in seal is filled with deuterium ions, and a copper sphere layer 4 is a peripheral ultrahigh pressure spherical positive static electric field source. The nuclear fusion electrical organ (with the spherical periphery positive static electric field) can be used for cold nuclear fusion power generation.

DESCRIPTION

Know artificial sun is hot deuterium fusion generator. Some scholars dogmatic learning sun “teacher” theory, “God,” one way to make them in the path of a controlled thermonuclear fusion difficulties encountered; even if successful, may outweigh the benefits in terms of energy. They will not turn. I think I have to change our thinking, open another Xi trails. ★ Chairman Mao said: “concrete analysis of concrete things.” So I decided to comply with the invention of cold fusion generator Earth conditions.

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FIG. Figure 1: 1, a spherical sealed container (. Which does not react with the deuterium ions with the high-strength stainless steel or ceramic) 2, deuterium ions body 3, a reflective layer balls. 4, with EHV positive electrostatic layer of brass balls, 5, vacuum ball layers. 6, adiabatic heliosphere. 7, sealed outer spherical vessel. 8. closures. 9, the gas nozzle. 10 guides.11, the funnel. 12, the sealing plug. 13, a metal tube. 14, water. 15, steam motive generators.

[0006] from the gas nozzle 9 into the sealed spherical container I filled (with) deuterium plasma. Open sealing cap 8. I put the container sealed within a spherical outer spherical vessel 7. To import copper ball EHV positive electrostatic layer 4 with EHV DC regulator. Emitted from the copper ball layer 4 peripheral EHV positive electrostatic field, compressed spherical vessel deuterium plasma (plasma light), resulting deuterium ions spacing <2 X 10_15 m,> 0.8 X 10_15 meters, resulting in helium ions in child (producing light ion fusion) and heat. Reflective layer 3 prevents the heat radiation radiates.Vacuum insulation layer 5 and 6 to prevent or reduce heat convection and conduction out. Function guide plate 10 is: (I) to prevent the metal tube 13 into the outer spherical container of water 14 7. Heat (2) with an endothermic, conduction, radiation, and other methods within the spherical container I from the input to the metal pipe 13 of water 14 (the working medium, the energy transfer medium). 14 due to heat water into water vapor. 15, the steam vapor to promote motivation to work. Both the advantages of the internal combustion engine and steam motive steam engine. 15 of the steam generator 15 driven motivation to work. ★ copper ball layer 4 is a peripheral spherical positive electrostatic field source.

[0007] 5. The theory controlled thermonuclear fusion generator dogmatic learning sun “teacher”, using the wrong light ion collisions said. Hard “struggle” for nearly 60 years, has not been successful, the feasibility poor. Even if successful, due to the magnetic field “pipe” shall consume a lot of power, high equipment costs, may outweigh the benefits in the economic and energy. (A) The present invention is suitable for Earth conditions. (B) the guiding idea of the invention is in line with the actual situation of the “periphery positive spherical compression of deuterium plasma electrostatic field” theory (three) in the present invention: (1) the temperature can be controlled within a spherical vessel below 1000 ° C ( controllable scale, security). 4 UHP (2) Copper Balls layer positive electrostatic field does not consume energy.Promote fusion of deuterium ions are relatively small amount of electrolysis energy (chemical) energy. (3) the reflective layer 3 balls, vacuum ball layer 5, the insulation layer 6 balls to substantially prevent heat loss (because the temperature is not high). (4) less input costs. Thus the present invention is the second after the invention of nuclear fission generators most advanced nuclear fusion generator invention.

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[0008] 6, the best way to implement the present invention is the National Science and Technology Commission, 863 free promotion and investment in the present invention.

“Nuclear force constrain inertial guidance cold nucleus fusion stack and ion speed-governing dc transformer”

CN 101350582 A - Assignee: Wong Chun Keung

Publication date: Jan 21, 2009 - Priority date: Mar 18, 2008

https://www.google.com/patents/CN1013…

ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a nuclear-constraining inertial-guidance cold nuclear fusion stack and ionic speed-regulating DC transformer, which are expected to completely solve the problems of energy and environmental protection which human beings are confronted with. The DC transformer can provide clean , secure and limitless nuclear-powered energy for all spacecrafts, aircrafts, ships, vehicles, power plants and other power-consuming device, so that human beings can really enter the age of nuclear energy And the DC transformer has the following characteristics:. under the condition of normal temperature, a special combined electromagnetic field is arranged in the space; according to the inherent magnetic moment and internal electric field of the light nucleus, two nucleuses to be fused are constrained within the same section; the vector of the inherent spinning moment of momentum of the nucleus is adopted to form the inertial-guidance characteristic of the ultra-powerful spinning top which can spin at a speed similar to the light velocity, so as to overcome the deflection of Coulomb barrier and to realize the fusion of direct collision; the similar nuclear-constraining inertial guidance mode is adopted to complete mixed speed regulation of ion beams of different velocities and different types of energy; then the ionic speed-regulating DC transformer is formed and provides significant auxiliary equipment of cold nuclear fusion stack, nuclear engine, and similar nuclear power plant which is used for starting the nuclear fusion and electrical energy conveying system. Therefore, a combined patent right is applied for.

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“Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat”

US 20140332087 A1 - Assignee - Brillouin Energy Corporation

Publication date: Nov 13, 2014 - Priority date: Feb 26, 2013

https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

ABSTRACT

A treatment of a possibly powdered, sintered, or deposited lattice (e.g., nickel) for heat generating applications and a way to control low energy nuclear reactions (“LENR”) hosted in the lattice by controlling hydride formation. The method of control and treatment involves the use of the reaction lattice, enclosed by an inert cover gas such as argon that carries hydrogen as the reactive gas in a non-flammable mixture. Hydrogen ions in the lattice are transmuted to neutrons as discussed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0206715 (Godes_2007)). Hydrogen moving through the lattice interacts with the newly formed neutrons generating an exothermic reaction.

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“Energy generation apparatus and method”

US 20110122984 A1 - Assignee - Brillouin Energy Corp.

Publication date: May 26, 2011 - Priority date: Dec 29, 2005 https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

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ABSTRACT

A ractical technique for inducing and controlling the fusion nuclei within a solid lattice. A reactor includes a loading source to provide the light nuclei which are to be fused, a lattice which can absorb the light nuclei, a source of phonon energy, and a control mechanism to start and stop stimulation of phonon energy and/or the loading of reactants. The lattice transmits phonon energy sufficient to affect electron-nucleus collapse. By controlling the stimulation of phonon energy and controlling the loading of light nuclei into the lattice, energy released by the fusion reactions is allowed to dissipate before it builds to the point that it causes destruction of the reaction lattice.

Theory of Operation

The Source of the Observed Energy in So Called “Cold Fusion”

Unlike the common assumptions involved in “Cold Fusion,” it is believed that the energy released in these reactions is the result of neutron capture by hydrogen isotopes and the beta decay of 4H to 4He.

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(see chart)

An additional alternative reaction path is a 2H undergoing an electron capture event and combining with a passing 2H to form 4He.

The Source of the Free Neutrons

The neutrons participating in these reactions are the product of flavor change of protons that have been loaded into the core lattice (while the current implementation contemplates a crystalline core, other implementations may use ceramic cores or powder beds). The flavor change represents the transmutation of the proton into a neutron by a process similar to electron capture. Neutron generation requires a crystal lattice capable of generating phonons, capable of loading hydrogen ions, and which can supply valence or conduction band electrons, providing the ˜511 KeV electron mass. The required system is one that can achieve a total Hamiltonian energy of ˜782 KeV. This value represents the difference in mass between the proton-electron combination and the mass of the neutron. This combination leads to the transformation of a proton and electron into a neutron. This is an endothermic reaction that leads to an overall lower system energy level. The system is converting only enough energy (mass) to affect an electron capture, leaving the resulting neutron at an extremely low energy level. The resulting low energy neutron has a high cross section of reaction with respect to (1-3)H nuclei in the lattice. This neutron capture is similar to the process leading to a neutron star as discussed in [Baym1971], and applies to the H, D and T caught in the lattice and further enhanced by the quantum currents which allows the lower loading in this system.

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It is believed that that energy is transferred to the protons through superposition of multiple phonon wave functions within the lattice of the core. This energy grows very rapidly as the non-bonded energy is extremely asymmetric. As mentioned in [NIH_Guide], “Repulsion is modeled by an equation that is designed to rapidly blow up at close distances (1/r12dependency).” Additional energy beyond the phonon energy is realized from atomic band state confinement of ions. When local loading of the lattice is high, hydrogen ions take up positions at the octahedral points of vacant S(n+1) electron orbitals between the PnS(n+1) orbital wave function energy levels in transition metals. This wave function energy level occupation provides confinement necessary for what is referred to as Quantum Compression, a property arising out of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

“Reactor for energy generation through low energy nuclear reactions (lenr) between hydrogen and transition metals and related method of energy generation”

US 20130243143 A1 - Assignee STMicroelectronics

Publication date: Sept 19, 2013 - Priority date: Feb 24, 2012 http://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

An embodiment of an apparatus includes a reaction chamber, a reaction unit, and an energy regulator. The reaction chamber includes an energy port, and the reaction unit is disposed in the reaction chamber and is configured to allow an energy-releasing reaction between first and second materials. And the energy regulator is configured to control a rate at which reaction-released energy exits the reaction chamber via the energy port. The reaction chamber may include a thermally conductive wall that forms a portion of the energy port, and the energy regulator may include a thermally conductive member and a mechanism configured to control a distance between the thermally conductive wall and the thermally conductive member. Furthermore, the reaction unit may include a mechanism configured to facilitate the reaction between the first and second materials, and may also include a mechanism configured to control a rate at which the reaction releases energy.

SUMMARY

As it is well known, the supplying of energy constitutes an ever more important problem due to the ever decreasing availability of fossil fuels (mainly oil) and to the environmental pollution that derives from their use.

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It is thus desirable to find energy sources that are non-polluting, non-dangerous for health, economically competitive with the fossil fuels (oil) and that can be easily found and are abundant in nature.

During the recent decades, several energy sources alternative to oil have been explored, tested, and sometimes used on an industrial scale for replacing, or at least for using alongside, fossil fuels.

An energy source alternative to fossil fuels that is still an object of study is constituted by the energy produced by nuclear reactions that are activated on the surface of transition metals whereon hydrogen or its isotopes are made to adsorb.

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This phenomenon is known in the scientific environment with the acronym LENRs (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) since all the experimental data lead to conclude that the amount of energy developed cannot but derive from interactions at the nuclear level between the hydrogen or its isotopes and the metal. It is also known, in the scientific environment, that this phenomenology can constitute in principle a particularly advantageous energy source both in terms of ease of finding and abundance of the fuel and in terms of greater safety of use (for example with respect to nuclear fission) and of reduced environmental impact.

“Method for Producing Heavy Electrons”

US 20110255645 A1 - Assignee - USA As Represented By The Administrator Of NASA

Publication date: Oct 20, 2011 - Priority date: Mar 25, 2010

https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

ABSTRACT

A method for producing heavy electrons is based on a material system that includes an electrically-conductive material is selected. The material system has a resonant frequency associated therewith for a given operational environment. A structure is formed that includes a non-electrically-conductive material and the material system. The structure incorporates the electrically-conductive material at least at a surface thereof. The geometry of the structure supports propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a selected frequency that is approximately equal to the resonant frequency of the material system. As a result, heavy electrons are produced at the electrically-conductive material as the surface plasmon polaritons propagate along the structure.

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DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The advantages of the present invention are numerous. Devices/systems made in accordance with the present invention control the frequency of the SPP resonance and its uniformity over large surface or volume regions. This will allow an entire device to participate in heavy electron production and ensuing energy generation. The present invention is adaptable to a variety of physical states/geometries and is scalable in size thereby making it available for energy production in a wide variety of applications (e.g., hand-held and large scale electronics, automobiles, aircraft, surface ships, electric power generation, rockets, etc.).

“Nuclear reactor consuming nuclear fuel that contains atoms of elements having a low atomic number and a low mass number”

WO 2013108159 A1 - Assignee - Yogendra Narain SRIVASTAVA, Allan Widom

Publication date: Jul 25, 2013 - Priority date: Jul 16, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013…

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ABSTRACT

The invention relates to a reactor for consuming a nuclear fuel that contains atoms of elements having a low atomic number (Z) and a low mass number (A), wherein the nuclear reactor (1) comprises a vessel (2) containing a reaction chamber (3). This reaction chamber (3) is topped and sealed by a sealed container (4), and contains the nuclear fuel, which comprises a colloidal mixture capable of producing Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons (ULMNs) by using electromagnetic radiations (5).

DESCRIPTION

In its most general aspect, the present invention relates to a nuclear reactor for consuming nuclear fuel that contains atoms of elements having a low atomic number Z and a low mass number A. In addition to that, a method for igniting and controlling this reactor is also described.

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In case of a nuclear accident, it is well known that one of the dangers of a nuclear reactor employing Uranium or Plutonium (high Z and A elements) is intimately tied to the very long periods of time in which harmful products of resulting nuclear reactions remain radioactive by emitting biologically hazardous radiations. For the same reason, the disposal of radioactive waste products produced during normal operations of these reactors requires complex and costly operations requiring long-term disposal sites.

This problem has been faced by NASA contractors in 2000, and the results coming out from this research have been recently made publicly available (18th, July 2011) in the NASA Technical report NASA/CR-2003-212169 - “Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications” (see Section 3.1.5.3, pg. 45-48). NASA identifies this new generation of nuclear reactors by using the term “Proton Power Cells.” NASA contractors (University of Illinois and Lattice Energy LLC) have measured an excess heat ranging from 20% to 100% employing a thin film (about 300 angstroms) of Nickel, Titanium and/or Palladium loaded with hydrogen as nuclear fuel. The metallic film was immersed in an electrochemical system with 0.5 to 1.0 molar Lithium sulfates in normal water as the electrolyte. To explain the reaction mechanism, Dr. George Miley (University of Illinois) hypothesized the fusion of 20 protons with five atoms of Nickel- 58 by creating an atom of a super-heavy element (A=310); this super-heavy atom rapidly should decay by producing stable fission elements and heat in the metal film.

More relevant excess heat in Nickel powder reacting with gaseous hydrogen is described in the international patent application PCT/IT2008/000532 (WO 2009/125444 Al) to Pascucci and Rossi. In this patent application, it is hypothesized that under moderate temperature and pressure conditions, a proton (H+) can cross the Coulomb barrier, and fuse with an atom of Nickel by starting well-known decay reactions that produce excess heat.

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“Modulated quantum neutron fusion”

WO 2005017916 A2 - Assignees - Matthew William Gray, William Thomas Gray

Publication date: Feb 24, 2005 - Priority date: Jul 26, 2003

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2005…

Claim 1: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned process of exciting hydrogen atom valence electrons to a quantum state by radio frequency, light energy, or other synthetic means, that results in artificial production of neutrons.

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Claim 2: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned process of modulating the production of neutrons by the method in Claim 1 so as to synchronize their quantity and half-life decays to precipitate a nuclear fusion reaction of neutrons into Helium.

Claim 3: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned process of aligning the field oscillation phases of particles in order to precipitate nuclear binding in fusion reactions.

Claim 4: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned method of converting the magnetic energy from the Modulated Quantum Neutron Fusion process directly into electricity.

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Claim 5: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned application of using the neutrons produced by the method in Claim 1 to synthesize elements.

Claim 6: What we claim as our invention is the aforementioned application of using the neutrons produced by the method in Claim 1 to decontaminate hazardous radioactive materials and substances SO’ as to render them non-radioactive.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

0012 The Modulated Pulse Sine Flow Rate Modulator monitors the ratio of helium produced to reactant neutrons and generates control pulses to the Quantum Exciter to regulate frequency and quantity of neutrons produced so that the half-life decay reaction produces helium, and thus a changing magnetic field, according to the desired sine wave frequency. The Electromagnetic Compression Chamber uses Electric Field Separator principles to compress the neutrons to less than 1.4xl0~15m separation and align their phases to increase the decay rate and cause constructive interference of their fields resulting in particle fusion. The Transformer uses the collapsing magneton field energy to generate electricity.

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“Apparatus and method for generation of ultra low momentum neutrons”

WO 2006119080 A2 - Assignee - Lewis G Larsen, Alan Widom

Publication date: Jan 23, 2008 - Priority date: Apr 29, 2005 http://www.google.com/patents/EP1880…

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ABSTRACT

Method and apparatus for generating ultra-low momentum neutrons (‘ULMNs’) using surface plasmon polariton electrons 14, hydrogen isotopes 10, surfaces 20 of metallic substrate 12, collective many-body effects, and weak interactions in a controlled manner. The ULMNs can be used to trigger nuclear transmutation reactions and produce heat. One aspect of the present invention effectively provides a ‘transducer’ mechanism that permits controllable, low-energy, scalable condensed matter system at comparatively modest temperatures and pressures.

“Interactions of charged particles on surfaces for fusion and other applications”

US 20120069945 A1 - Assignee - Solaris Nanosciences Corporation

Publication date: Mar 22, 2012 - Priority date: Sep 8, 2009 https://www.google.com/patents/US2012…

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ABSTRACT

A method of generating an energy release reaction including providing a surface or interface formed between a first medium and a second medium. Depositing a plurality of like-charged particles in the first medium adjacent to the surface wherein a potential binding energy between the plurality of like-charged particles and the repulsive force that exists between the like charged particles causes the particles to move until a state of equilibrium is reached. Wherein the movement of the particles over said surface generates dissipation energy. Further wherein the state of equilibrium results in a distance between at least two of the like-charged particles to be sufficiently small to result in reaction of the at least two like-charged particles.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In this regard, the present invention provides for a system and method of generating energy through the binding of charged particles to a surface or at specific dielectric interfaces. Further embodiments of the invention include a system and method of energy generation by the movement of charge particles resulting from their being deposited on a surface. Further embodiments of the invention include the fusion of nuclei at temperatures below 10,000K. The generation of energy is achieved by dissipation energy released as the deposited particles move to seek equilibrium relative to one another and the binding surface. Further energy is released from fusion reactions, which result from depositing or creating charged nuclei on a surface or in an interface between a high dielectric constant material, such as a metal or dielectric, and a lower dielectric constant relative to the medium in which the charged nuclei reside. An attractive potential is created between two or more charged particles on the surface of the material with the significantly larger dielectric constant or within the lower dielectric constant material at an interface. This attractive potential has its origin in the electrostatic solutions to Laplace’s equation for a charge in front of a dielectric or metal plane or other shapes with curvature and edges. The attractive potential is equally expected as between positive or negatively charged particles such as ions, electrons and muons, and can result in binding of such particles.

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Forty years ago it was predicted that electrons could be trapped above metallic and dielectric surfaces by image forces. Single electrons would be expected to exhibit an infinite number of bound image states, which exhibit a Rydberg series similar to hydro genic atoms. This work successfully explained the experimentally observed trapping of electrons above the surface of liquid helium. Since this pioneering work, many such systems have been identified and studied extensively using a variety of realistic crystal potentials and various particle scattering and optical techniques. In addition to planar surfaces, work on clusters, droplets, and carbon nanotubes has also been undertaken.

“Magnitites Pycnonuclear Reactions within Electrochemical, Radioactive and Electromagnetic Medias”

US 20140140461 A1 - Assignee - Reginald B. Little

Publication date: May 22, 2014 - Priority date: Apr 25, 2005 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

The electrochemically active elements of the transition series include both the third, fourth and fifth d block elements, the lanthanides and the actinides. These transition elements have distinct electrochemistry for driving many chemical reactions, in particular the absorption of large volumes of hydrogen and the formation of various hydrides. In particular, Pd, Th, Ti, Ag, Au and La hydrides exhibit anomalous effects. The chemical reactions for forming, decomposing and rearranging the bonds of metal hydrides involve large energies. Furthermore these metal hydrides and mixtures are here demonstrated to exhibit greater strange cold nuclear reactions both cold fission and cold fusion. This invention provides magnetic, x-ray, laser irradiation, pressure, neutron beam, beta ray, alpha ray, gamma ray and catalytic technology for accommodating the special conditions for more controlled and accelerated cold nuclear reactions within the dense plasma (pycno) provided by the lattice of these metal hydrides. Under these conditions, the cold nuclear reactions are controllably enhanced to rates for practical energy sources but the very nonsynergistic nature of these pycnonuclear phenomena diminishes the possibility of runaway or explosive systems.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One of the improvements of the present invention is an apparatus for massively producing products of nuclear reactions by cold fission and fusion phenomena.

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Another improvement of the invention is an apparatus for massively producing energy associated with nuclear reactions by controlled accelerated cold nuclear reactions.

Another improvement of the invention is an apparatus for massively producing energy and nuclear materials with less effort, expense and cost by making use of readily available neutrons, x-ray energy, gamma ray, beta ray, and alpha ray energy and matter from radioactive stockpiles.

Another improvement of this invention is an apparatus for the safer management, handling and transmutation of nuclear waste materials rather than storage at waste disposal sites. This technique will assist conversion of these energetic nuclei to less active nuclides.

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The new art makes use of magnetic field, high electric current, alpha rays, gamma rays, beta rays, neutrons, high pressures, and x-rays for reducing the high temperature thermal conditions and the resulting unwieldly conditions for nuclear processes to cold processes. This apparatus and process lead to ease of combining, reforming and cracking nuclei for energy and valueable products.

Another improvement of the present invention is its applicability and industry for both heavy and light elements within a single pot synthesis. This new art provides magnetic fields, rays and particles for use with current electrochemical, catalytic, radioactive techniques with the enhancement of the ability of these techniques for generating and selecting isotopes and nuclear energies. The enhancement is a result of the stabilization of energy and uniformly coherent energy provided by the magnetic field, electromagnetic field and particle rays in comparison to thermal energy and phonons in older arts.

Another improvement of the current invention is the controllability of desired nuclear events. In particular, the magnetic stabilization for control of logic, reasoning, action, manipulation of process variables and feed-back control are feasible due to advantages provided by this new invention.

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The nature of the magnetites pycnonuclear process eliminates explosive, uncontrollable runaway nuclear dangers. The magnetic field allows build-up of intratomic Coulomb potential by antisymmetry and organized weak interactions for nuclear transmutations. The intrinsic antisymmetry of such processes on the basis of temporal, spatial and matter symmetry provides nonsynergistic events such that the magnetic field enhances the weak interaction but the resulting weak interaction does not enhance the magnetization. The weak interaction and the resulting nuclear reaction are thereby effectively modulated by an external magnetic field.

On the basis of the present invention, the foregoing and other advantages are achieved in part by a new apparatus for producing isotopes and nuclear energy. The apparatus consists of a reaction chamber having at least one electrode element or dense pycno media, at least one port for introducing target, at least one port for exhaust of product-target. Target is the element undergoing transmutation. The pycomedia is the lattice (usually a transition metal electrode) catalyzing the transmutation of the target species. The electrode element can be any element useful for applying electric stress for pycno conditions or a pycno-media for irradiation by alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, x-rays, electromagnetic radiation and/or neutrons. At least one laser radiation source may be disposed to the reaction chamber for rapidly exciting, heating, intersystem crossing and relaxing material and metal atoms. At least one magnetic field generator may be affecting the content of the reaction chamber for the magnetic stabilization and densification of various radicals and high spin states. At least one device for affecting the internal pressure of the electrolytic chamber or target material is involved. At least one laser IR heating source is arranged within the reaction chamber for selectively heating the metal catalysts. The thermal energy, catalyst, particle irradiation, x-ray, neutrons, laser fields, magnetic fields, pressure, and heating facilitate the cold nuclear conversion of target materials to desirable isotopes and excess energy.

“System and method for controlling a power generation system including a plurality of power generators”

WO 2014127460 A1 - Assignee - Bock Sam, George Thorpe

Publication date: Aug 28, 2014 - Priority date: Feb 20, 2013 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014…

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ABSTRACT

A power generation system (1) comprising : a fuel input port for receiving a fuel; a plurality of power generators (4) in fluid communication with the fuel input port, each of the power generators (4) being switchable between an inactive state and an active state, wherein, in the inactive state, the power generators (4) produce substantially no power, and, in the active state, the power generators (4) produce each a respective predetermined substantially fixed power; a controller (2) operatively coupled to the power generators (4) for setting a set of the power generators (4) to the active state and setting all of the power generators (4) not part of the set of the power generators to the inactive state, the controller (2) being configured for selecting which of the power generators (4) are part of the set of the power generators (4) such that the system power is substantially equal to a power requirement.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Several new types of hydrogen-catalyst power reactors are presently in commercial development. These novel hydrogen-catalyst reactors differ from other conventional hydrogen reactors, motors, or fuel cells in that they either use a catalyst to react a portion of the hydrogen in the reactor system to a lower energy state, or use a catalyst with hydrogen to alter the sub-atomic structure of specific reactants. Common to both types of these novel catalytic reactors is that they use hydrogen in combination with a catalyst to create releases of kinetic energy output greater than the kinetic energy initially input into the systems to produce the reactions. Independent validations done by numerous highly reputable sources on various types of these power reactors confirm the novel generation of energy by these reactor systems and processes. The present document refers to several other documents, the contents of which is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. The successful development of these novel hydrogen-catalyst power reactors has resulted from numerous developments in physics per various catalytic processes previously not considered possible per mainstream physics theory. All of these various hydrogen-catalyst reactor systems have been conclusively shown to produce excess amounts of energy over that inputted, with certain of those reactors producing very large amounts of energy, from specific reactions using any number of catalysts and compounds in combination with hydrogen to achieve those reactions and the desired release of energy while generating little or no ionizing radiation.

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[0003] One such type of hydrogen catalytic reactor produces primarily thermal output believed to be the product of different types of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Many different reactors have been built and demonstrated by numerous research and commercial development teams, including by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States. The numerous validations of these reactors systems, including those incorporated by reference, attribute these previously unknown exothermic reactions to various potential theories currently being researched further in university, government agency, and commercial laboratory and prototyping facilities.

[0004] Mills teaches of another potentially superior type of hydrogen- catalyst power system source known as a Heterogeneous Hydrogen-Catalyst Power System in United States Patent Application 20120122017, published May 17, 2012, and which is hereby incorporated by reference. This class of electrochemical power source comprises several different types of reactor vessels that all use similar forms of a novel non-polluting catalytic process to release large amounts of non-ionizing energy from hydrogen atoms. The type of catalytic reaction described by Mills is possible with a wide range of catalysts, and numerous embodiments of reactor vessels to produce them.

[0005] The energy released by Mills’ class of hydrogen fueled devices can be very high, with some types of reactor vessels generating roughly 137.8x more energy than released by the oxidation of hydrogen, or, 137.8x the energy required for the production of the same amount of hydrogen through the electrolysis of water. This makes the fuel component cost for such devices almost negligible, as such power vessels produce more than ample energy to generate additional hydrogen fuel through electrolysis of water. Further, as certain embodiments of reactor vessels that generate these powerful catalytic reactions are dimensionally small, continued optimization of their design predicts power plants with potentially very high power densities.

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“Thermal-energy producing system and method”

WO 2013076378 A2 - Assignee - Etiam Oy

Publication date: May 30, 2013 - Priority date: Nov 27, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013…

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ABSTRACT

System and method for producing thermal energy is based on a very large number of nanoscale particle accelerators in a volume accelerating electrons and hydrogen ions at very high local electric fields. Nanoscale particle accelerators comprise a dielectric material possessing electric polarizability and a metallic material capable of forming an interstitial and/or electrically conductive metal hydride and capable of enhancing the local electric field by the geometry and/or by the sufficiently small dimensions of the said metallic material. Low to medium strength local electric fields are utilized for the generation of Rydberg matter and inverted Rydberg matter in the presence of a material capable of forming and storing Rydberg atoms. Destabilization of Rydberg matter and inverted Rydberg matter leads to solid state physical reactions that release energy.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] According to the theory of special relativity energy has an equivalent mass and mass has an equivalent energy. The law of conservation of mass-energy in an isolated system means that the total amount of energy (energy + mass converted into equivalent energy) must be constant. On the other hand, the law of conservation of mass-energy in an isolated system means that the total amount of mass (mass + energy converted into equivalent mass) must be constant. Thus, loss of mass in the system means that energy must be released in the system. As a consequence, energy is released in the fusion reaction if the sum of masses of initial nuclei and possible elementary particles (e.g. neutrons) is larger than the mass of the final nucleus and possible elementary particles (e.g. neutrons).

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[0003] According to Jeffrey A. Geuthera and Yaron Danon in a publication titled “Electron and positive ion acceleration with pyroelectric crystals”, published in Journal of Applied Physics 97, 074109 s2005d, electric field strength of 1.35xl07V/cm was obtained in a lithium niobate crystal with ΔΤ = 75 °C.

[0004] W. Hu et al. present piezoelectric materials made from ternary solid solutions of BiFe03- PbZr03-PbTi03, in Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 31, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 801-807, which is incorporated herein as a reference. As an example of ternary solid solutions, 0.648BiFeO3-0.053PbZrO3-0.299PbTiO3 has a Curie temperature of 560 °C. [0005] P. Shiv Halasyamani and Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier have compiled and categorized over 500 noncentrosymmetric oxides by symmetry-dependent property and crystal class in Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, pp. 2753-2769, which is incorporated herein as a reference. Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) compounds possess symmetry-dependent properties comprising piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity. [0006] Commercial nanopowders of metals and metal compounds are available from various companies. American Elements, 23 Rue Des Ardennes, 75019 Paris, France, sells various nanopowders, e.g. nickel oxide nanopowder (typical particle diameter 10 - 30 nm, specific surface area 130-150 m2 /g).

[0007] It is known that metallic hydrides are formed by most of the d- block elements (i.e., transition elements), on reacting with hydrogen. Hydrogen exists in the atomic rather than ionic form. Due to small size of hydrogen atoms when compared to the metal atoms, hydrogen atoms occupy interstitial positions in the metal lattices. Thus these are interstitial compounds and some workers regard them nearly as solid solutions.

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“Method of generating thermal energy”

US 20130276771 A1 - Assignee - Microscal Two Limited

Publication date: Oct 24, 2013 - Priory date: Oct 19, 2010 https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a method of generating thermal energy, the method comprising: (i) contacting a surface of a metal with an atmosphere comprising hydrogen to form a surface having hydrogen absorbed thereon; and (ii) exposing the surface having hydrogen absorbed thereon to an atmosphere comprising oxygen, wherein the oxygen reacts with the absorbed hydrogen to produce thermal energy, wherein before performing step (ii) the surface is activated with an atmosphere comprising water.

DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to a method of generating thermal energy and an energy storage apparatus. The present invention also relates to the use of a metal having hydrogen absorbed thereon to generate thermal energy.

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Methods of generating thermal energy are of use in many different industries. Particularly of use are methods of storing potential thermal energy which may be released at an appropriate time. It is also of use to be able to recharge the energy source, so that more thermal energy can be generated.

WO2009/040539 describes a method of activating compositions comprising transition metals selected from at least one of gold, nickel, copper, ruthenium, molybdenum and platinum. In this document it is described that heat may be generated by the physical and chemical interactions of solid surfaces with gases. The heat evolution may be measured using flow-through microcalorimetry. A flow-through microcalorimeter may be used to measure the uptake of gases, heat evolution, the sorption of gases and their displacement with carrier gases at a range of temperatures and pressures.

Previously the inventors have found that heat is produced when a metal having hydrogen absorbed thereon is reacted with a pulse of oxygen. The present inventor has surprisingly found that much more thermal energy may be generated by modifying the surfaces of the metal.

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“Methods of generating energy and/or he-4 using graphene based materials”

EP 2656350 A1 - Assignee - Christopher H. Cooper, William K. Cooper, James F. Loan

Publication date: Oct 30, 2013 - Priority date: Dec 24, 2010

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2656…

ABSTRACT

There is disclosed a method of generating non-ionizing radiation, non-ionizing 4He atoms, or a combination of both, the method comprising: contacting graphene materials with a source of deuterium; and aging the graphene materials in the source of deuterium for a time sufficient to generate non-ionizing radiation, non-ionizing 4He atoms. In one embodiment, graphene materials may comprise carbon nanotubes, such as nitrogen doped single walled or multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Unlike an alpha particle, the non-ionizing 4He atoms generated by the disclosed method are a low energy particles, such as one having an energy of less than 1 MeV, such as less than 100 keV. Other non-ionizing radiation that can be generated by the disclosed process include soft x-rays, phonons or energetic electrons within the carbon material, and visible light.

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[0058] The results presented herein are, in general, consistent with other reported low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experimental results, most notably the work of McKubre at Stanford Research Inst, who reported a peak 4He concentration of 1 ppm after 20 days of aging palladium powder in D2 gas (APS meeting, Denver CO, March 5, 2007).

“Methods of gas confinement within the voids of crystalline material and articles thereof”

US 20140038080 A1 - Assignee - William K. Cooper, James F. Loan,Christopher H. Cooper

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Publication date:Feb 6, 2014 - Priority date: May 10, 2007 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

ABSTRACT

There is disclosed articles for and methods of confining volatile materials in the void volume defined by crystalline void materials. In one embodiment, thehydrogen isotopes are confined inside carbon nanotubes for storage and the production of energy. There is also disclosed a method of generating various reactions by confining the volatile materials inside the crystalline void structure and releasing the confined volatile material. In this embodiment, the released volatile material may be combined with a different material to initiate or sustain a chemical, thermal, nuclear, electrical, mechanical, or biological reaction.

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SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, there is disclosed a method for the sequestering of volatile materials, which comprises the confinement of a fluid and/or gas inside a void of substantially single crystalline material. In one embodiment, the gases are comprised of hydrogen isotopes, oxygen isotopes, or other oxidizing agents and combinations thereof. In addition, the source of hydrogen isotopes may be in a solid, liquid, gas, plasma, supercritical phase. Alternatively, the source ofhydrogen isotopes may be bound in a molecular structure.

There is also disclosed a method of releasing gas from the crystalline voids for consumption, such as the release of hydrogen for combustion with oxygen in a fuel cell. Alternatively, the hydrogen may be consumed within the crystalline void structure resulting in the release of energy. Furthermore the hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium may be confined in the crystalline void structure to be utilized in the production of nuclear fusion energy.

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DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

A. Definitions

The following terms or phrases used in the present disclosure have the meanings outlined below:

The phrase “crystalline void structure” refers to a structure that is substantially comprised of crystalline structure further containing at least one element that acts as a valve sufficient to confine and allow gas to transfer there through.

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The phrase “crystalline material” refers to a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions, sometimes referred to as a unit cell. Under this definition, one or few graphitic layers are also be defined as “crystalline material”. Carbon nanotubes and nanohorns are made from one or few graphitic layers with specific symmetrical operation are also defined as “crystalline material”. Carbon fullerene, because of its perfect symmetrical structure, is also defined as crystalline material. Further more, nanotubes, nanohores and fullerenes made out from other inorganic crystalline materials could also be defined as crystalline materials.

The term “void” refers to a bulk defect in crystalline material. The classical definition of “void” in a crystalline material refers to small regions where there are no atoms, and can be thought of as clusters of vacancies. In the present disclosure, this definition is extended to include all the crystalline structures mentioned above and within this invention, such as the hollow space within nanotubes, nanocubes, nanoballs and fullerenes.

B. Embodiments

In one embodiment, the hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium may sequestered in the crystalline void structure to be utilized in the production of nuclear fusion energy.

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The void volume described herein is the volume defined by the inside edge of the innermost layer of cylinder, such as the carbon or graphene tube. In one embodiment, the volatile material is comprised of hydrogen isotopes, confined inside a carbon nanotube with the assistance of a valve in the form of a palladium plug that is held at a low temperature to maintain a sufficiently low diffusion of the hydrogen isotopes. In this embodiment, the crystalline void structure is used to confine the volatile hydrogen isotopes in the form of a nano-confinement fusion crucible. Such an embodiment may be used for hydrogen nuclear fusion reactions.

The nanotube structure disclosed herein may have a epitaxial layers of metals or alloys. In one embodiment, the void in crystalline material disclosed herein may have epitaxial layers of metals or alloys on the exterior or interior of the said crystalline material. Non-limiting examples of such metals may be chosen from antimony, aluminum, zinc, gold, silver, copper, platinum, palladium, nickel, iridium, rhodium, cobalt, osmium, ruthenium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, titanium, gallium, indium, cesium, chromium, gallium, cadmium, strontium, rubidium, barium, beryllium, tungsten, mercury, uranium, plutonium, thorium, lithium, calcium, niobium, tantalum, tin, lead, or bismuth, yttrium for different applications. The metals or metal alloys may be deposited using traditional chemical and physical techniques. Non-limiting examples of these traditional methods are salt decomposition, electrolysis coating, electro-coating, precipitation, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, electron sputtering, thermal sputtering, and/or plasma assisted deposition.

“Renewable energy production process with a device featuring resonant nano-dust plasma, a cavity resonator and an acoustic resonator”

EP 2707880 A2 - Assignee - György EGELY
Publication date: Mar 19, 2014 - Priority date: May 11, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/EP2707…

CLAIMS

What I claim is:

1. Renewable energy production process with resonant nano-dust plasma, with the application of a cavity resonator and an acoustic resonator - characterized by having the acoustic resonator placed inside the cavity resonator, thus creating a resonator unit - as well as a series of acoustic resonances created above 120 dB in the frequency spectrum of 5 Hz - 5 GHz, at temperatures ranging between 1,000 °C - 3.000 °C and averaging at 2.000 °C, with sub- micron sized carbon dust particles at the hundred-nanometer scale and a total carbon mass of less than 0.5 g, and by less than 1% mass ratio of hydrogen isotopes and, advantageously, from air or from 1% hydrogen and helium mixture, where the external exciting field has a power density of less than 2,000 W/dm3 and the electromagnetic waves are reflected from the cavity resonator walls, thereby creating oscillations on the surface of carbon dust particles, causing electric field amplification, thus yielding energy production and nuclear transmutation processes with plasmon polariton oscillating between 10 kHz - 5 GHz and in the terahertz range, producing heat or electric energy, or creating a series of nuclear transmutations.

4. Renewable electric energy producing device working with resonant dusty plasma in co-spherical inner and outer electrodes, whereby the inner electrode is connected to the power supply and the outer electrode to the load, with the input power supplied by a power source, oscillator, primary and secondary coils, the load is connected to the outer electrode via oscillating circuits; characterized by an inner electrode made of carbon or carbosilicates working in frequencies ranging from a few kHz to a few MHz, connected to one terminal of the secondary-side transformer, while the other terminal is grounded, and insulated from the outer electrode - which is spherical in shape and features a mirror-like inner surface sheathed with an electrically insulating and heat resistant layer; furthermore, the device works at about 20 Pa and is operated suitably at a maximum temperature of 500 °C, further the outer electrode is connected to tuned oscillating circuits via a single wire.

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“Method for the production of renewable heat energy”

US 20140098920 A1 - Assignee - György EGELY

Publication date: Apr 10, 2014 - Priority date: Jun 1, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

The subject of the invention is a process for heat production with nuclear interactions. During the process the gas is pumped through a stack of nanoparticles in a device featuring an internal and an external chamber via an inlet and an outlet opening, and the process is initiated by heating the device. Further, the subject of the invention is a device accomplishing said process. The device has an interconnected internal chamber, and surrounding said chamber there is an external chamber having at least one inlet and one exit opening. There are nanoparticles in the internal chamber. There is an impermeable wall between the two said chambers. The internal chamber is separated from the exit opening by a heat resistant, porous ceramic wall. There is a heating element on the internal side wall.

DESCRIPTION

The invention is a method for renewable energy production with a nuclear process, when a gas flows through a stack of nanoparticles in a device featuring an internal and an external chamber, with ports on both inlet and an outlet side. The process is started by heating the system to its operating temperature. A further subject of the invention is a device for the production of renewable heat thermal energy with gas and nanoparticles. The device comprises internal and external chambers, with at least one inlet and one outlet opening. A control unit is an inherent part of the system.

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This nuclear heat production only takes place when a thin layer of palladium or nickel contains such contamination that produces small cracks on the metal surface. It has hitherto been unnoticed, as it is visible only under an electron microscope, and therefore had received no attention. When the cathode got saturated with hydrogen and the surface became cracked, the experiments were successful; otherwise it failed. This is hard to control technically, and is influenced by heat treatment and milling methods during manufacturing.

The present invention was rendered possible by the realization that experiments have come to highlight the importance of both process temperature and surface quality. The importance of temperature was shown by those tests, when the electrolysis was switched off due to local overheating. (A phenomenon that is referred to as the “heat after death” effect).

In the “conventional cold fusion”, process the fusion reaction of deuterium nuclei was sought inside of a palladium crystal lattice. This was proven wrong.

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The heat production effect takes place on nano-sized conductive surfaces due to the resonant field amplification effect of thermal radiation. Then, free electrons and protons of dilute hydrogen plasma combine into ultra-cold neutrons due to this high electric field intensity and, according to our assumption by searching for the nearest nuclei, nuclear reaction takes place.

Technically, when subjected to intense thermal radiation, nano-sized grain particles or layers are suitable for this purpose. Therefore, nano-sized “components” having good electric conductivity are appropriate for this task, being attached to large surfaces.

The allotrope forms of carbon are especially suitable to form useful nano particles, for example closed spheroidal, multilayer formations heavier than C60, like C540, or mostly in nanotubes.

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This invention was made possible also with the realization that such nano-sized carbon particles are easy to manufacture in a gas discharge.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS - Overview

The method according to our invention is renewable heat production by means of a nuclear process, and embodiments to achieve it in practice. The fundamentals of our process have been disclosed above, where the heat production effect takes place on nanometer-sized surfaces triggered by infrared radiation and amplified by a resonant electromagnetic field. Then, free electrons and protons from hydrogen and inert gases due to this amplified field intensity combine into ultraslow neutrons, which in turn fuse into the nucleus of nanoparticles with electroweak interactions according to our opinion.

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“Methods of generating energetic particles using nanotubes and articles thereof”

US 20130266106 A1 - Assignee - Seldon Technologies, Llc

Publication date: Oct 10, 2013 - Priority date: Dec 5, 2005 http://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

There is disclosed a method of generating energetic particles, which comprises contacting nanotubes with a source of hydrogen isotopes, such as D2O, and applying activation energy to the nanotubes. In one embodiment, the hydrogen isotopes comprise protium, deuterium, tritium, and combinations thereof.

There is also disclosed a method of transmuting matter that is based on the increased likelihood of nuclei interaction for atoms confined in the limited dimensions of a nanotube structure, which generates energetic particles sufficient to transmute matter and exposing matter to be transmuted to these particles.

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Devices powered with nanotube based nuclear power systems may substantially change the current state of power distribution. For example, nanotube based nuclear power systems may reduce, if not eliminate, the need for power distribution networks; chemical batteries; energy scavenger devices such as solar cells, windmills, hydroelectric power stations; internal combustion, chemical rocket, or turbine engines; as well as all other forms of chemical combustion for the production of power.

“Nickel alloys for hydrogen storage and the generation of energy therefrom”

US 20140126680 A1 - Assignee - Target Technology International, Ltd.

Publication date: May 8, 2014 - Priority date: Jun 1, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

An apparatus for the generation of thermal energy comprises a reactor vessel containing a volume of pressurized hydrogen; a hydrogen-storing nickel alloy structure in the reactor vessel and configured to have an electric potential applied across it and to be heated to at least about 100 C; and a heat exchange conduit configured to carry a heat exchange medium past the nickel alloy structure so as to allow thermal energy generated in the nickel alloy structure to be transferred to the heat exchange medium. The hydrogen-storing nickel alloy structure comprises a nickel alloy skeletal catalyst mixed with an oxide. The applied electric potential, and the increase in the gas pressure and temperature of the hydrogen from the applied heat, create a reaction between hydrogen nuclei and nickel nuclei in the nickel alloy structure whereby thermal energy is generated by the emission of phonons from the nickel alloy structure.

BACKGROUND

This disclosure relates to nickel alloys that are capable of acting as catalysts for processes involving the storage of hydrogen, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and hydrogenation reaction processes. The disclosure further relates to methods of making these alloys and to the generation of thermal energy therefrom.

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It is known to use certain metals, such as palladium (Pd), to store hydrogen, particularly its deuterium isotope (D2), in connection with attempts to achieve low energy nuclear reactions. These attempts have, to date, failed to achieve sufficient repeatability or predictability to be of any practical use. Furthermore, the need for the relatively rare and expensive metal palladium would further limit any commercial-scale use of these processes, especially since such processes would need to compete with the very high demand for palladium for use in catalytic converters for internal combustion engines. Dependency on hydrogen with enhanced concentrations of deuterium further increases costs. Thus, it would be desirable to achieve low energy nuclear reactions that are repeatable and predictable using a lower cost metal or metal alloy, as well as hydrogen with its naturally-occurring isotopic distribution, thereby offering greater promise of practicality on a commercial scale.

One category of alloys that has been the subject of investigation for hydrogen storage is nickel (Ni) alloys. Specifically, numerous nickel alloys are known that are capable of storing hydrogen for the generation of electrical energy by electrochemical processes. Such alloys are used, for example, in electrical batteries, particularly of the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) type. To date, however, the Ni alloys used do not sufficiently catalyze the hydrogen reaction processes to achieve low energy nuclear reactions.

“Method and device for direct nuclear energy conversion in electricity in fusion and transmutation processes”

US 20130121449 A1 - Assignee - Liviu Popa-Simil

Publication date: May 16, 2013 - Priority date: Nov 15, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

A method and device to generate electric energy on demand by fusion or transmutation nuclear reactions produced inside a super-capacitor that uses inter-atomic field’s particularities obtained inside nano-structures, by using temperature, density and electric fields in order to modify nuclear entanglement and quantum non-localities particularities in order to control nuclear reaction rate of an inserted material, called nuclear fuel, facilitated by the nano-structure nuclear composition, called burner, that controls the non-local nuclear reaction.

Fusion or transmutation generated nuclear particles’ energy is converted using a super-capacitor made of a micro-nano-hetero structure meta-material that loads from the nuclear energy and discharges by electric current.

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The device contains the nuclear burner module that produces the nuclear particles surrounded by the direct nuclear energy conversion into electricity super-capacitor modules comprising several functional sub-modules, and the utilities that provide the nuclear fuel and byproducts management and process control systems.

“Nuclear Fusion of Common Hydrogen”

US 20140153683 A1 - Assignee - Hydrogen Fusion Systems, Llc

Publication date: Jun 5, 2014 - Priority date: May 3, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

A process of fusing common hydrogen to: (1) form all of the elements in the Periodic Table of Elements; and, (2) produce excess energy. The process involves controllably initiating the process of electron capture with a hydrogen nucleus, which produces virtual neutrons and a new short-lived negatively charged particle (Negatron).

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to: (1) form helium, along with all of the other chemical elements in the Periodic Table of Elements; and, (2) produce excess energy.

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The sequence of fusion reactions (or sequence of fusions) that leads from 41 1H to 2 4He is listed below. It should be noted that the energy yields are approximate, as 931.494 MeV was used as the conversion factor from unified atomic mass units (uamu) in Daltons to rest mass energy in MeV. The twelve reactions listed below take place within the later defined Special Dynamic Material Environment, while the environment’s reactions are being stimulated and synchronized by electromagnetic radiation.

P(938.211 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)=X(938.722 MeV), a Virtual Neutron

X(938.722 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)=Y(939.233 MeV), a Light Negatron

N(939.505 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)=(Y#)(940.016 MeV), a Heavy Negatron

P(938.211 MeV)+X(938.722 MeV)=1 2H(1876.006 MeV)+0.691 MeV

P(938.211 MeV)+Y(939.233 MeV)=1 2H(1876.006 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+0.809 MeV

P(938.211 MeV)+(Y#)(940.016 MeV)=1 2H(1876.006 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+1.642 MeV

2H(1876.006 MeV)+Y(939.233 MeV)=1 3H(2809.431 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+5.297 MeV

3H(2809.431 MeV)+X(938.722 MeV)=2 4He(3728.401 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+19.241 MeV

2H(1876.006 MeV)+(Y#)(940.016 MeV)=2 3He(2809.413 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+6.098 MeV

3He(2809.413 MeV)+X(938.722 MeV)=2 4He(3728.401 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+19.223 MeV

3He(2809.413 MeV)+Y(939.233 MeV)=2 4He(3728.401 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+19.734 MeV

3He(2809.413 MeV)+(Y#)(940.016 MeV)=2 4He(3728.401 MeV)+e −(0.511 MeV)+20.517 MeV.

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“Method and apparatus for generating energy by nuclear reactions of hydrogen adsorbed by orbital capture on a nanocrystalline structure of a metal”

US 20140098917 A1 - Assignee - Alessandro Meiarini, Silvia Piantelli, Leonardo Ciampoli, Fabio Chellini

Publication date: Apr 10, 2014 - Priority date: Apr 26, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

Technical problems: increasing and regulating the power obtained according to a method and by an apparatus based on nuclear reactions between hydrogen(31) and a primary material (19) comprising cluster nanostructures (21) of a transition metal, in which hydrogen is kept in contact with the clusters (21) within a generation chamber, at a determined process temperature, and in which a process comprising an orbital capture reaction of H− ions (35) by clusters (21)and then a capture reaction by the atoms (38) of the cluster (21) is triggered by impulsively acting on the primary material (19), thus generating an energy as a primary reaction heat (Q1).

Solution: arranging a secondary material (28) such as Lithium and/or Boron and/or a transition metal as 232Th, 236U, 239U, 239Pu within a predetermined distance (L) from the clusters (21) of primary material (19), such that secondary material (28) faces primary material (19), said secondary material (28) adapted to interact with protons (35′″) that are emitted by/from primary material (19) during the above process. Secondary material (28) reacts with such protons (35′″) according to nuclear proton-dependent reactions releasing a secondary reaction heat (Q2) that is added to primary reaction heat (Q1). According to an aspect of the invention, a step, and a means thereto, is provided of/for regulating the heat produced, by adjusting the amount of secondary material (28) that is arranged close to and facing primary material (19).

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“Method of acceleration of nuclear transmutation of isotopes by carrying out exothermic reactions”

US 20140192941 A1 - Assignee - Lev Bernstein

Publication date: Jul 10, 2014 - Priority date: Oct 26, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

Methods for acceleration of nuclear transmutation of tritium and radioactive isotopes of metals, and decontamination of metals contaminated with radioactive isotopes by destroying radioactive isotopes to a required level of residual radioactive inventory in metals with simultaneous release of thermal energy via stimulating accelerated transmutation with the half-life parameters describing kinetics of radioactive isotope destruction much shorter than their generally accepted half-life. The stimulus is applied to radioactive metals by placing them into a chamber, exposing them to gaseous substances of the group of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or a mixture of these isotopes in a molecular hydrogen form for said gaseous substances to be absorbed by the metals, heating the metals to a temperature of at least 200° C. and maintaining at the said temperature. Exothermic reactions of non-radioactive metals with deuterium, tritium, or a mixture of these isotopes in a molecular hydrogen form release a significant amount of energy.

Irrespectively of a mechanism of nuclear reactions involving tritium—radioactive decay and/or nuclear reactions with tritium participation—certain amount of energy is released in these experiments. Therefore, tritium in metals could be used as a source of energy production.

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A search for economically viable alternative sources of energy production has been going on for the last several decades. Recently, an economically viable method of energy production based on exothermic reaction of nickel with hydrogen was proposed by A. Rossi (Italian patent No. 0001387256 issued on 6 Apr. 2011). According to the patent, a highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel atoms and hydrogen atoms takes place in a tube, preferably, though not exclusively made of a metal, filled with a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature preferably, though not necessarily, of 150 to 500° C., by injecting hydrogen into the said metal tube with the said nickel powder being pressurized, preferably, though not necessarily, to a pressure of 2 to 20 bars. In the exothermal reaction described in the patent, the hydrogen nuclei are compressed around the metal atom nuclei (as the capability of nickel to absorb hydrogen is high), while the said high temperature generates inter-nuclear percussions which are made stronger by the catalytic action of other optional undisclosed elements, thereby triggering a capture of a proton by the nickel powder, with a consequent transformation of nickel to copper and a beta+ decay of the latter to a nickel nucleus having a mass larger by a unit than that of the original nickel.

The said patent did not specify an isotopic composition of nickel used for the experiments; therefore, for a purpose of estimating heat release in this reaction, we used an isotopic composition of nickel with an abundance of the stable isotopes existing on the Earth. Table 1 shows possible products of the nuclear reactions of nickel isotopes with hydrogen atoms. For the purpose of our estimates, cross sections for all isotopes are assumed to be identical. An energy released per each nuclear reaction of nickel isotopes is estimated based on Einstein’s equation, ΔE=Δmc2. As can be seen from Table 1, each nickel isotope can theoretically react with hydrogen atom. Assuming that all nuclear reactions of each isotope of a nickel sample with hydrogen atoms are going on in parallel, energy released by g-atom of nickel (2.38E+24 MeV) is calculated based on stoichiometric concentrations of the nickel stable isotopes. Moreover, most of nickel stable isotopes will be mainly transformed to stable 29Cu63 isotope provided a sufficient amount of hydrogen atoms is available.

“Halogen-catalysed cold nuclear fusion”

WO 2012140472 A1 - Assignee - Cipolla Giuseppe

Publication date: Oct 18, 2012 - Priority date: Apr 12, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2012…

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DESCRIPTION

Technical field of the invention

The present invention refers to the field of cold nuclear fusion and more precisely it regards a method for providing cold nuclear fusion of deuterium alone or deuterium with hyd rogen or with tritium, taking advantage of the chemical bond between deuterium and hydrogen with halogen atoms to obtain the corresponding hydrohalogen acids. The negative charge of the negative ions of the halogen atoms masks the positive charge of the deuterium or hydrogen nuclei and allows them, at temperatures that do not break down the molecule, to approach, due to the thermal agitation, up to distances suitable to obtain their nuclear fusion

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Detailed description of the invention

The present invention is based on the idea of using the repulsive component of the Van der Waals intermolecular force as a force for approaching the hydrohalogen acid molecules having deuterium or tritium nuclei. The Van der Waals intermolecular force has a two-phase development: it is weakly attractive at high intermolecular distances while as the two gas molecules approach each other, the force is nullified and then it becomes violently repulsive.

Between two neutral gas atoms the only attractive force possible is the one between the positive nucleus of an atom and the negative electron cloud of the other atom. The inversion of this attractive force to repulsive force indicates that, as the two atoms approach the attractive force, a repulsive force is superimposed up to surpassing it. This force occurs between the two electron clouds of the two atoms. The sudden inversion of the weak attractive force into violent repulsive force, when the internuclear distances are still relatively long, indicates that this repulsion, which increases thus suddenly due to minimum reduction of internuclear distances, is not due to the repulsion between the nuclei but due to repulsion between the two electron clouds whose relative distance reduces more markedly than the distance between the two nuclei does.

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The presence of two positive charges on the surface of two hydrohalogen acid molecules which face each other as shown in figure 2, inverts the Van der Waals repulsive force into two attractive forces. While between two free deuterons there is only one repulsive force, there is an assembly of attractive and repulsive forces between two hydrohalogen acid molecules formed by the combination of a hydrogen isotope (deuterium, tritium or hydrogen) with a halogen atom.

Figure 4 shows the various attractive interactions between two hydrohalogen acid molecules. The attractive force 1 refers to the attraction between the nucleus B and the charge electron of the ion A, when the electron is at the maximum distance. The force 1 B is the same force with the electron at the minimum distance. Forces 2 and 2B are the same forces of 1 and 1 B, between the nucleus A and the charge electron of B. The force 3 is the attractive force between the deuteron C and the charge electron of B with charge electron at the maximum distance. The force 3B is the same force but with charge electron at the minimum distance. The force 4 is the same force, between the deuteron D and the charge electron of A, with charge electron at the maximum distance. The force 4B is the same force but with charge electron at the minimum distance. The force 5 is the attraction between nucleus B and electron cloud of A. While at long distances the electrostatic forces of the electrons are identical to the electrostatic forces of the nucleus, at short distances the electrostatic forces of the closest electrons are markedly greater than those of the nucleus and the overall electrostatic force of the electrons exceeds the electrostatic force of the nucleus. This allows the forces of the charges of the electrons to behave as if they were generally closer to the deuteron, with respect to the charges of the nucleus. Hence, the centre of attraction of the electron cloud (y) will be closer to the deuterons with respect to the nucleus. The force 6 is the same force as 5, between nucleus A and electron cloud of B. The force 7 is the attraction between deuteron C and electron cloud. Given that the distance between the deuteron and electron cloud is even smaller, the displacement of the centre of attraction (x) of the cloud will be even greater. The force 8 is the same as 7, between deuteron D and electron cloud of A.

Figure 5 shows the overall repulsive forces. The force 1 1 is the repulsion between the charge electron of B and the electron cloud of A (the displacement of the centre of repulsion y also in this case). The force 12 is the same as 1 1 , between the charge electron of A and the electron cloud of B. The force 13 is the repulsion between the two charge electrons. The distance between the two electrons oscillates between 13 and 13A. The force 14 is the repulsion between the deuteron C and the nucleus of B. The force 15 is the same as that of 14, between deuteron D and the nucleus of A. The force 16 is the repulsion between the two nuclei of the two negative ions. The force 17 is the repulsion between the two electron clouds of the two ions (repulsive component of the Van der Waals force). The centre of repulsion (x) is even more displaced with respect to the centre of the ion. The force 18 is the repulsion between the two deuterons.

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The repulsive force 16 between the two halogen nuclei is surpassed by the attractions 5 and 6 between these same nuclei and the halogen electron clouds of the opposite molecule (attractive component of the Van der Waals force). Also the single force of repulsion between the two charge electrons is surpassed by the double force of attraction that each deuteron or triton exerts on the charge electron of the halogen ion of the other molecule (the distances between the deuteron and triton oscillate between values that are half the maximum distances between the two charge electrons). In the same manner, the two attraction forces 7 and 8 exerted by each deuteron or triton and the electron cloud of the halogen ion of the other molecule are much larger than the single force of repulsion between the two electron clouds. The overall sum of the attractive and repulsive forces is markedly smaller than the sole repulsive force between two deuterons or tritons approaching each other, as it occurs in a thermonuclear plasma.

“Energy producing device and method”

WO 2012163966 A1 - Assignee - Groeneweg Bastiaan Rinke Antony

Publication date: Dec 6, 2012 - Priority date: May 30, 2011 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2012…

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ABSTRACT

An apparatus (1) for producing useful energy, comprises a container (3) for containing an electrolyte (5), an anode (7) and a cathode (9) arranged at least partly in the container for electrolysis of the electrolyte, and a light source (15). At least the cathode comprises a metallic surface. The electrolyte comprises a hydrogen isotope. The light source is arranged for illuminating a volume bordering the cathode and/or at least a portion of the cathode surface. The light source is configured to emit radiation for exciting and/or ionising at least one hydrogen isotope. The method comprises illuminating a volume bordering the cathode and/or at least a portion of the cathode surface so as to thereby excite and/or ionise at least one hydrogen isotope.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

(partial)

Fig. 1 shows an apparatus 1, comprising a container 3 for containing an electrolyte 5, here heavy water D20 in liquid form, as well as an anode 7 and a cathode 9 arranged at least partly in the container for electrolysis of the electrolyte, and both connected to a voltage source 11, here connected with an optional first controller 13 for operating the voltage source 11 in one or more controlled manners.

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The apparatus further comprises light source 15, e.g. a laser, provided with a power source 17 and an optional laser controller 19 for controlling operation of the light source, e.g. for controlling power, wavelength ( s ) and/or polarisation, etc. The power source 17 and/or the laser controller 19 may be connected, as shown here, with the first controller 13, directly or indirectly via a further controller such as a computer system.

The apparatus further may comprise one or more sensors and/or detectors 21, possibly connected with a data collection and/or processing system and/or with a controller, e.g. the first controller 13. The latter setup may provide a feedback arrangement .

The cathode 9 is generally tubular with a hollow lumen 23. Here, the cathode extends from the container 3 and is provided with a tubular section 25 which may be connected to a source of a substance, e.g. the hydrogen isotope in a gaseous molecular form, such as D2 (not shown) . Light from the light source 15 may be introduced into the cathode 9. Here, the cathode 9 comprises at least one window 27 that is transparent for the wavelength ( s ) of the light source (s) 15. The window 27 here is mounted gas-tight and it may be formed to achieve an optical effect, e.g. being formed as a lens. The cathode 9 is closed off with a lid 29 that is operable, possibly in a controlled manner (controller not shown) as a valve for closing/opening the cathode lumen 23 from/to the outside environment .

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(partial)

It is considered that, once the two nuclei are located within a stable electron orbit, escape from one of the nuclei, in particular a charged proton is prevented by the screen put up by the orbiting electron. Hence, the nuclei are caught within the envelope of the orbit.

Note that a Rydberg atom atop a charged conductor such as the electrolysis cathode may experience strong Stark shifts, affecting its affinity for a local positive charge as provided by a nearby (virtual) Deuteron.

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In a further aspect of a method, the method is combined with excitation of at least one of the Deuterium nuclei, e.g. via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques.

This facilitates both nuclei to occupy a nuclear bound, but excited, state. E.g., an excited nuclear state for a Deuteron may comprise (at least in a classical picture) two-particle motion of the nucleons (proton, neutron) , which may map onto higher order modes of four-particle excited states. Possibly, a better mapping occurs of a three-particle bound state, mediated by emission of a neutron, in which case a Helium 3 atom may be formed as an end product of the method.

It is further believed that in a compound nucleus of plural fragments excitation of the fragments may facilitate a beneficial screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons by the neutrons due to their rearrangement caused by the excitation .

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Hence this method comprises as a step the application of one or more N R signals to the apparatus for exciting nuclei of atoms of the hydrogen isotope.

In yet a further aspect of a method, the cathode voltage is oscillated between different voltages with respect to the anode, or the further anode inside the gas phase where applicable, in a predetermined manner with the wavelength ( s ) and/or pulses of the excitation or ionisation light; also this allows “stripping” and/or biding an electron in controlled fashion from/to the core, in close analogy to the Alpha- and ATRAP-experiments on preparing and storing anti-Hydrogen at the CERN experimental accelerator facility in Geneva, Switzerland.

“Resonant Vacuum Arc Discharge Apparatus for Nuclear Fusion”

US 20120008728 A1 - Assignee - Ray J. Flemming

Publication date Jan 12, 2012 - Filing date Jul 9, 2010 https://www.google.com/patents/US2012…

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ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a resonant vacuum arc discharge apparatus for producing nuclear fusion. A resonant high-frequency high-voltage alternating current (AC) power supply is used to efficiently power a fusion tube normally containing deuterium, tritium and/or helium-3 vapor. Metals that can hold large amounts of hydrogen isotopes such as palladium and titanium can be used to increase the target density. The nuclear fusion device can be used for energy production, well logging, uranium mining, neutron activation analysis, isotope production or other applications that require a neutron source.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Many scientific research efforts focus on developing magnetic confinement methods to control plasma and produce fusion. None of the numerous variations in this approach have successfully produced net positive energy and are generally too cumbersome to replace accelerators for field use. In general these efforts suffer from the plasma density being too low or beams of plasma not being easily controlled. Laser fusion is technique that currently requires far more energy than it generates, and is not suitable for field use. Both of these methods also suffer because the test apparatus is not conducive to extracting heat for power production.

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Another field of interest is Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), often called cold fusion. LENR can occur when a metal that can hold significant amounts of hydrogen such as palladium is saturated with deuterium. Numerous experimenters have reported that fusion occurs spontaneously in deuterium-saturated palladium. The output is presently far below anything needed for energy production or any other commercial use. LENR research into materials that can contain high concentrations of deuterium and tritium is however applicable to other fusion techniques.

The inventor previously received patents for a resonant power supply for producing vacuum arc discharges, U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,799, and for a vacuum arc discharge apparatus for the efficient production of x-rays, U.S. Pat. No. 6,765,987. These devices used a high-voltage resonant circuit attached to the cold cathode electrodes of a partially evacuated tube in order to produce x-rays. The resonant AC circuit was significantly more efficient than a DC powered x-ray source of the same voltage and energy. The x-ray tube in its preferred embodiment used a noble gas such as xenon or argon at pressures in the low millitorr range.

“Multilevel resonant coupling nuclear fusion device”

CN 103117096 A - Assignee - Liu Liang

Publication date: May 22, 2013 - Priority date: Nov 16, 2011 www.google.com/patents/CN103117096A

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ABSTRACT

Due to the facts that nuclear fusion reaction needs to overcome coulomb acting force, generating conditions are strict, temperature with millions of DEG C is needed, no fusion device is successful at present. A resonance phenomenon is a phenomenon of inputting low energy to obtain high energy output. The resonance is a viable approach to reduce the temperature of the nuclear fusion reaction. The input energy is conducted to atoms capable of carrying out the fusion reaction through the multilevel resonant coupling, and is stored in vibration of the atoms, the nuclear fusion reaction under the lower temperature condition is achieved, the form that the fusion reaction releases the energy is changed through the resonant coupling, harmful radiation is reduced or avoided, and therefore a portable nuclear fusion battery is produced.

CLAIMS

1. This patent discloses a nuclear fusion reactor, wherein: the use of multi-scale resonant coupling between the resonant body makes nuclei fusion and control their energy release form.

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More than the number of said resonant body 1 according to claim 2 or more species, with the role of one of the input energy is efficiently directed to the fusion reaction to occur and stored in the resonant atoms of these atoms until they occur fusion reaction, and second, product of fusion reactions to reduce harmful effects of radiation.

1 referred to in the multi-scale dimension claim located between the meters to IO1 10_15 m.

The form of the resonator body of claim 1, including but not limited to the two nuclei, two atoms, the cavity and the cavity of the micro-nanometer macroscale.

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As claimed in claim 2, the mechanical energy input wave, acoustic fluid wave or electromagnetic waves, these waves can be entered individually or simultaneously.

The resonant body of claim 1 may have the same or different resonance frequencies, can be coupled to each other affect each other, are formed integrally.

The small scale of a resonant body resonance claim the body should be included in the large-scale resonant body.

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“Energy generation by nuclear acoustic resonance”

US 20110044419 A1 - Assignee - James H. Cook

Publication date: Feb 24, 2011 - Priority date: Aug 19, 2009 https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

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ABSTRACT

The present invention solves the problems of reliably initiating a low energy fusion reaction by loading deuterium into palladium metal via the process of electrolysis and by initiating the fusion reaction via the application of nuclear acoustic resonance. Affixed on each side of an electrolysis cell are piezoelectric transducers driven by corresponding frequency synthesizers. Surrounding the cell is a magnetic field produced by a magnetic field generator. The application of nuclear acoustic resonance, i.e. the combined application of an alternating magnetic field and of high frequency acoustic waves causes the deuterium atoms resident in the closely packed palladium metallic lattice to fuse into helium atoms with the consequent release of energy that is inherent to the fusion process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Investigators into the facts and circumstances of Fleischman and Pons’s original 1989 experiment have noted that the following additional factors likely affected the outcome of the experiment.

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1. There was a low-level alternating magnetic field in the vicinity of the experiment caused by a transformer (presumably 60 Hz.) on the opposite side of the wall against which the fume hood containing the experiment was mounted.

2. An unrelated experiment in another part of the room was generating ultrasonic acoustic waves in the Megahertz range. It is believed that two frequencies, differing only slightly from each other, are necessary. (See the article, The Truth About DNA, subheading “A past experiment that was incomplete”.)

Application of the New Invention to a Low Energy Fusion Heater Devices have been conceptualized that would put the heat energy generated by a low energy fusion reaction to practical use. One such device is a low energy fusion heater such as that proposed by Talbot A. Chubb, Ph.D. (See T. A. Chubb, “Cold Fusion, Clean Energy for the Future,” page 48, FIG. 2.10.1, Internet Edition, (April 2008), by New Energy Times...

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By applying the principle of nuclear acoustic resonance as taught by the present invention to the heater of Chubb, a working low energy fusion heater is brought a step closer to realization.

Such an improved device is as follows. FIG. 2 depicts in schematic form an improved form of a low energy fusion heater. The device uses a solid electrolyte 36 in contact with metal foils 38 on opposite sides of the electrolyte. One metal foil serves as an anode and the other as a cathode. The device shown in FIG. 2 features two solid electrolyte plates 36 with metal foils 38 on opposite sides and hence contains two electrolytic cells. Both the solid electrolyte and the metal foils are capable of dissolving deuterium, i.e. deuterium may permeate through the foils and electrolyte and when an electric potential is applied across the foils and electrolyte, energy in the form of heat is generated by the low energy fusion reaction which takes place in the reactor plate which is fabricated to contain an oxide-nano-metal composite comprised of calcium oxide-palladium which is sputtered on.

The low energy fusion heater further comprises a pressure tight enclosure 32 and a cylindrical reactor plate 34 for supporting the solid electrolyte. The reactor plate is formed from a material through which deuterium gas may permeate or pass. One such suitable material is a nano-metal composite comprised of metal oxide and palladium layers. (See T. A. Chubb, “Cold Fusion, Clean Energy for the Future,” pages 32-36 (describing ionic nano-metal composites), Internet Edition, (April 2008).) Closing off the reactor plate are end caps 40 which are comprised of an electrically insulative material. The device also includes vacuum-tight pass-throughs 42 which allow wires 44 to pass through the pressure tight enclosure and make contact with the metal foils 38 (the return ground path from the anodes are not shown), as well as a gas input tube 46 for loading deuterium gas into the heater. Deuterium gas which passes through the solid electrolyte cells and the reactor plate collects in the pressure tight enclosure 32.

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Upon turning off the electrical potential across the solid electrolyte, the deuterium gas in the pressure tight vessel may again diffuse across the solid electrolyte and thus in this manner maybe reused. Alternatively, the gas may be collected and recirculated into the gas input tube 46. The drawback of the above device is that it lacks the ability to reliably initiate a low energy fusion reaction.

The present invention improves on the heater of Chubb by adding the hardware required to create nuclear acoustic resonance conditions within the heater and thereby reliably initiate a low energy fusion reaction as taught by the present invention. As shown in FIG. 2, the Chubb heater has been improved by equipping the device with a first acoustic wave generator 17 comprising a first piezoelectric transducer 18 driven by a corresponding first frequency synthesizer 20 and a second acoustic wave generator 21 comprising a second piezoelectric transducer 22 driven by a corresponding second frequency synthesizer 24. The first and second acoustic wave generators are shown situated on opposites sides of the cold fusion heater 33. Surrounding the pressure tight enclosure 32 is an alternating magnetic field 25 (not shown) generated by a magnetic field generator 26.

“Material surface treatment method using concurrent electrical and photonic stimulation”

US 20130233718 A1 - Assignee - Brian P. Roarty, Carol J. Walker

Publication date: Sep 12, 2013 - Priority date: Jan 15, 2010 http://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

A material surface treatment protocol (e.g., FIG. 13) uses concurrent electronic and photonic stimulation to generate an exothermic reaction and coat the surface (e.g., FIGS. 8 and 9) of a material, such as palladium. This protocol is performed at or near the boiling point of water within a sealed vessel that prevents the escape of steam and that is lined with silica or a similar glass to increase the silica available to the reaction. The great majority of the applied energy is heat used to elevate the temperature to near the boiling point, while concurrent stimulations provide only about 100 mW of additional energy for the surface treatment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The protocol typically requires at least two hours of treatment before bursts of heat are observed. It is suspected that something must be happening to either the solution or to the electrodes in that period to facilitate the observed reaction. Lithium salts, such as lithium sulfate (Li2SO4), are used as an electrolyte in the solution. Since the reaction does not occur immediately, it is possible that the silica and the lithium in our protocol are bonding in some way before the bursts of heat are observed. In particular, the lithium may be combining with the silica compound in the solution over the time frame of the treatment protocol to form a lithium silicate, possibly Li2SiO3 (lithium metasilicate). Alternatively, since silsesquioxanes were used in the anionic silica hydride in the solution for the experiments, perhaps the lithium is either bonding to resulting siliceous cage structures or entering the center of the silica cage when that compound is used as the source of the silica.

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The energy density of the reaction shown in the data log is thus 234 Joules/41.5×10−12 m3 or 5.64×103 MJ/L.

Making the worst-case assumption that the active region of the reaction has the 12.0 g/cm3 density of fully dense palladium, that converts to 470 MJ/kg.

That energy density is several times greater than molecular energy densities, thus providing further evidence that the reaction is not a molecular chemical reaction.

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At the present state of the research in LENRs, it is not known whether the lithium silicate is a reactant, in which case it would be consumed in the reaction, or a catalyst, in which case it would not be consumed.

“Low energy nuclear device”

CA 2772463 A1 - Assignee - Summer E.J. Sibley

Publication date: Sep 19, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 19, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/CA2772…

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ABSTRACT

The herein described invention is an apparatus for producing thermal, electric, or mechanical energy, or a combination thereof, from the fusing of atomic nuclei at temperatures below conventional nuclear fusion temperatures. Fuel or fuels capable of undergoing nuclear fusion are stored in a reaction vessel into which an input energy is delivered by a control module to start the nuclear processes. Output power is delivered in the form of a) thermal energy directly from the interior or exterior of the reaction vessel and, b) nuclear radiation energy that is converted into thermal energy inside the shielding material of the reaction vessel and then subsequently extracted. Optionally, the apparatus may contain one or more modules that function to convert the thermal energy from the nuclear reactions, into another desirable form of output energy.

“Exothermic and endothermic cycling power generation”

WO 2014043029 A1 - Assignee - Michael Gurin

Publication date: Mar 20, 2014 - Priority date: Sep 14, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014…

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ABSTRACT

Provided herein are power generating systems utilizing exothermic and endothermic cycling of simulated moving beds, preferentially utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid, to increase enthalpy and thermodynamic cycle efficiency while providing long-term operating life by utilizing the high heat transfer rate of supercritical fluids to maintain precise temperature control of each bed. Methods for producing power are also provided.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention generally relates to power generation systems that utilize multiple reactor beds that cycle between exothermic thermal generation and endothermic loading devices (reactor) preferably within highly recuperated thermodynamic cycles to provide tightly controlled temperature regulation and thermal recovery. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a reactor comprised of at least two reactor beds cycling between exothermic and endothermic mode to operate a thermodynamic cycle at high efficiency and ensuring safe operation of reactor in both modes for optimal energy production.

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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Due to a variety of factors including, but not limited to, global warming issues, fossil fuel availability and environmental impacts, crude oil price and availability issues, alternative energy sources are becoming more popular today. One such source of alternative and/or renewable energy are hybrid exothermic reactions/mode operating in conjunction with endothermic reactions/mode. The most efficient thermodynamic cycles have high temperatures (in excess of 500 °C, and preferably in excess of 800 °C) presenting significant challenges for exothermic reactions that have upper limit temperature constraints.

Turning to Figure 8, Figure 8 Scenario B is another embodiment of Scenario A such that multiple layers of alternating layers of Reactor Exothermic Stage HX 20 and Phonon Electron Coupling 200 perpendicular to the electromagnetic field (cathode and anode) 210.1 and 210.2.

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The invention reactor beds are preferably comprised of at least one of Boron 10 Hydride, Palladium, Lithium 6, and Nickel. It is understood that the nature of exothermic reactions also includes LENR and LANR as known in the art. A wide range of triggers can be used to switch between endothermic loading and exothermic stages including switching of operating voltage across the reactor, and plasmon generators. The phonon to electron coupling layer is preferably within the mean free path of phonons from reactant voids/defects.

Although the invention has been described in detail with particular reference to certain embodiments detailed herein, other embodiments can achieve the same results. Variations and modifications of the present invention will be obvious to those skilled in the art and the present invention is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modifications and equivalents.

“Highly integrated inside-out ramjet”

US 20130014511 A1 - Assignee - Michael Gurin

Publication date: Jan 17, 2013 - Priority date: Jan 4, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

The present invention generally relates to power generation and compression methods requiring high efficiency and low capital cost. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to an inside-out ramjet having both circumferential components and radial components on a single shaft to maximize exergy efficiency and minimize system size.

DESCRIPTION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention generally relates to compression for standalone air/gas/refrigerant applications including power generation having a preferred inside out configuration to maximize compressive/centrifugal forces on rotating components. The features are essentially identical for expansion in standalone air/gas/refrigerant applications including power generation. In the preferred embodiment, the present invention utilizes a first inside out ramjet preferably with a second inside out ramjet as either compressor or expander.

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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Due to a variety of factors including, but not limited to, global warming issues, fossil fuel availability and environmental impacts, crude oil price and availability issues, alternative energy consuming compressors with or without power generation methods must be developed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Many of the most significant consumers of electricity (or mechanical energy) require compression of a working fluid, which in itself is a compressible/expandable gas. Compression is also the first step of power generation for any Brayton cycle. Any improvement to energy efficiency of the compression process translates into enhanced energy efficiency of the entire power generation cycle. The last step of power generation is expansion through an expander. The combined limitations of each individual component being a compressor or expander are further elaborated when seeking to maximize system energy efficiency.

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SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention preferred embodiment relates to ultra-high temperature power production process having a high temperature exhaust that is subsequently utilized with a cascading cycle to maximize exergy efficiency. The preferred embodiment further includes a supercritical CO2 thermodynamic power generating cycle to incorporate at least two compression stages per shaft, and at least two expansion stages per shaft.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The term “in thermal continuity” or “thermal communication”, as used herein, includes the direct connection between the heat source and the heat sink whether or not a thermal interface material is used.

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The term “fluid inlet” or “fluid inlet header”, as used herein, includes the portion of a heat exchanger where the fluid flows into the heat exchanger.

The term “fluid discharge”, as used herein, includes the portion of a heat exchanger where the fluid exits the heat exchanger.

The term “expandable fluid”, as used herein, includes the all fluids that have a decreasing density at increasing temperature at a specific pressure of at least a 0.1% decrease in density per degree C.

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The term “working fluid” is a liquid medium utilized to convey thermal energy from one location to another. The terms heat transfer fluid, working fluid, and expandable fluid are used interchangeably.

Turning to FIG. 3, FIG. 3 is an axial cross section view of one embodiment of the ramjet. This embodiment has two separate ramjets, preferably of equivalent size and capacity, back to back to significantly reduce thrust loads (a particularly important benefit in view of the high rotational speeds of the ramjet, subjecting severe forces on all bearings including thrust bearings). FIG. 3 depicts each ramjet as a single stage ramjet having a working fluid impeller 10, which is a radial impeller, a fuel slinger 20 (which is required only for a ramjet having internal combustion within the combustor), a spacer 30 (which can vary in size as a function of working fluid density, velocity, and rotation per minute “RPM”), and ramjet 40. The ramjet 40 as depicted can be solely the compression stage, or the expansion stage. The ramjet 40 as depicted can also be an integrated compression stage, combustor, and expansion stage. The working fluid is discharged through the volute 80 in a radial manner as shown by piping 170. Another embodiment as depicted can have one of the two separate ramjets 40 (first) be solely the compression stage and the other of the two separate ramjets 40 (second) be solely the expansion stage such that external heating (not depicted) will increase the enthalpy between the compression and expansion stage. Yet another embodiment as depicted can have the first ramjet 40 be a compression stage for a first thermodynamic cycle, and the second ramjet 40 be a compression stage for a second thermodynamic cycle. Another embodiment as depicted can have the first ramjet 40 be a first compression stage for a first thermodynamic cycle, and the second ramjet 40 be a second compression stage for the first thermodynamic cycle.

Turning to FIG. 4, FIG. 4 is an axial cross section view of one embodiment of the ramjet. This embodiment has two separate ramjets, preferably having at least 10 percent counteracting thrust loads. FIG. 4 depicts each ramjet as a single stage ramjet having a working fluid impeller 10, which is a radial impeller, a fuel slinger 20 (required only for a ramjet having internal combustion within a combustor, though not preferred)

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“Boron-10 enhanced thermal energy”

US 20110268235 A1 - Assignee - Michael Gurin

Publication date: Nov 3, 2011 - Priority date: Apr 29, 2010 https://www.google.com/patents/US2011…

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DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The term “low-energy nuclear reactions”, as used herein, includes any nuclear transmutation or nuclear emission as induced by ultra-low or low momentum neutron absorption.

The term “co-reactant”, as used herein and without being bound by theory, includes any atom, molecule, or composition consumed within a chemical reaction or contributing to the transfer in whole or in part of nuclear energy to the resulting composition of a chemical reaction.

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It is understood in the art that Boron-10 captures neutrons as a safety feature within nuclear reactors, but the prior art does not utilize the Boron-10 as a thermal source for an energy generation system. The disclosed invention, without being bound by theory, utilizes Boron-10 for low energy nuclear reactions specifically fusion. A high temperature chemical reaction, such as combustion, occurring at an average temperature greater than 1000 C. produces localized temperatures in excess of 2000 C. The Boron-10, as referenced in this invention, is characterized as a co-reactant. The term co-reactant as used herein is not limited to the traditional sense of a product “consumed” within a reaction, and thus as used within as a catalyst or intermediary in the creation of localized hot spots. In one instance the localized temperature exceeds 3500 Kelvin. In another case, the localized temperature exceeds 10,000 Kelvin. And in another instance, the localized temperature exceeds 20,000 Kelvin. Here, as well as elsewhere in the specification and claims, individual numerical values and/or individual range limits can be combined to form non-disclosed ranges.

The preferred concentration of Boron-10, relative to non-Boron-10 isotopes is greater than 80% (i.e., 4:1). And the particularly preferred concentration of Boron-10 isotopes to other boron isotopes is greater than 90% (i.e., 9:1). The specifically preferred concentration is greater than 95% (i.e., 19:1) Boron-10 isotopes to other boron isotopes.

One embodiment of the Boron-10, as used within the reactor, is in various forms with the preferred forms having a high diffusion barrier of phonons as a method of increasing the localized temperatures. One instance of a diffusion barrier of phonons is known in the art, including a vacuum gap in excess of 10 nm. Another case of a diffusion barrier is thermal barrier coatings as known in the art. One such form of Boron-10 as utilized in the invention is a Boron-10 ceramic, with the ceramic selected as known in the art. A preferred ceramic utilizes predominantly Boron-10 and is prepared from polymeric precursors including h-Boron-10 Nitride and cubic boron nitride as prepared using U.S. Pat. No. 6,153,061. Without being bound by theory, the h-Boron-10 Nitride is a superior insulative and particularly dense material thus minimizing the energy release as a result of a neutron capture being in the form of phonons. Another preferred embodiment utilizes Boron-10 nitride nanotubes, without being bound by theory enhances performance due to polarization and piezoelectricity to provide free electrons and other nuclear emitted particles (e.g., alpha particles).

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Yet another embodiment include Boron-10 nitride nanotubes with a Boron-10 nitride/carbon nanotube superlattice. Another embodiment includes Boron-10 compounds such as Boron-10 trifluouride. Without being bound by theory, the lattice structure is supportive of low energy nuclear transmutations.

“Fuel Cells Based on Precise Energy Separation”

US 20140154597 A1 - Assignee - Fahs Stagemyer Llc

Publication date: Jun 5, 2014 - Priority date: Dec 4, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

Anodes utilizing precise energy separation are provided. The anodes can be used to generate electrical energy from a feedstock via precise energy separation. The anodes include an energy source that supplies the promoter energy to target molecules in a feedstock to dissociate one or more target bonds in one or more target molecules. Generally, the energy is provided in an effective amount, intensity, and frequency of energy to specifically dissociate one or more target bonds in one or more target molecule present in the feedstock, releasing electrons. These electrons are accepted by an electrode that is electrically connected to an electron sink. Fuel cells containing anodes utilizing precise energy separation are provided.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Anodes utilizing precise energy separation are provided. The anodes include a container suitable to hold a volume of feedstock, one or more fluid inlets, one or more fluid outlets, an energy source, and an electrode electrically connected to an electron sink. The anodes can be used to generate electrical energy from a feedstock via precise energy separation.

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The anodes include a container of suitable dimensions and integrity to hold a volume of feedstock. One or more fluid inlets and one or more fluid outlets are fluidly connected to the container to deliver feedstock to the container, and to remove feedstock and/or component products from the container. The feedstock may contain a variety of target molecules including pollutants, industrial waste products, reaction byproducts, metals, graphene doped materials, carbon based materials, and waste material.

The anodes include an energy source that supplies the promoter energy to the feedstock to dissociate one or more target bonds in one or more target molecules. The energy source may be positioned outside of the container (i.e., an external energy source) or integrated within the container; however, it must be positioned to transfer the energy to target molecules in the feedstock. Suitable energy sources include frequency generators, electrical generators, plasma generators, arc lamps, low energy nuclear reactions (LENR), LEED, an elliptically polarized light source which may include a light source in combination with a polarization filter, ionization chambers, photoionization detectors (PID), pulse generators, amplifying generators, tunable lasers, ultraviolet lamps, ultraviolet lasers, pulse ultraviolet generators, combination lasers or pulsed energy sources, ultrasound generators, pulsed lasers, diodes, natural light, infrared radiation, X-rays, Gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, high harmonic generators or tunable high harmonic sources, and combinations thereof, alone or in combination with a catalyst or specialized catalyst such as an electron hopping material. In certain embodiments, the energy source is a fiber optic device, optionally coated with a catalyst such as graphene, present within the container.

“Method for transforming element and producing energy”

US 20090135981 A1 - Assignee - High Scientific Research Laboratory

Publication date: May 28, 2009 - Priority date: Nov 27, 2007

https://www.google.com/patents/US2009…

ABSTRACT

To provide a reliable method for producing energy by means of nuclear condensation.

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A method for transforming element comprises a deuterium nuclear is located on vertical angle of each surface composing regular hexahedron inside the metal crystal and an electron is located on the rest of vertical angle, wherein four deuterium nuclei are fused by Coulomb attraction between four protons and four electrons and transform to two helium atoms.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Nuclear-fusion reactions include deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) reactions, with deuterium and tritium containing positively charged protons, and so between two positively charged deuterium atoms or between a deuterium and a tritium atom, the action of Coulomb repulsion makes fusion difficult. Accordingly, the author devised a combination in which Coulomb attraction is applied by employing electrons having negative charges of the same magnitude. This was found to result in action of Coulomb attraction 0.84 times greater than Coulomb repulsion, breaking through the Coulomb barrier and triggering a fusion reaction.

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1. Elucidation Based on Pythagorean Principles

In FIG. 1, positively charged deuterium nuclei (hereinafter termed deuterons, or D) and negatively charged electrons are alternatingly arranged at the vertices of a cube by the action of self-organization according to dissipation theory—that is to say, by form—so as to exist in the Platonic structure depicted. FIG. 1 shows that deuterons and electrons are arranged at the vertices of a cube, a Platonic structure, and shows their relationship to the Pythagorean theorem

Based on the experimentation by Yoshiaki Arata that revealed that the four electrons and four deuterons invade the gap space between the elements of the lattice of a hydrogen-occlusion alloy, it is understood that, similarly to superconductivity, the four deuterons and the four electrons 300 to 600 times heavier that had become subnucleons in the solid crystal of the alloy formed a cube, which is a Platonic polyhedron, in the gap spaces between the lattices.

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This formative action is a self-organizing force, mentioned in Greek philosophy and also subjected to consideration in the phase action mentioned by Heisenberg and von Weizsäcker of Germany. This self-organizing force is the capacity of mutual action between polymers discovered by Belgian Nobel laureate Ilya Prigogine five years ago. In the realm of the atom as well, Matthias Brack of Germany has reported that when minute metal fragments are sprayed into a vacuum, self-organizing force acts to bring about crystallization into Platonic structures. The distances between adjacent electrons and deuterons are all equal and form the 12 edges of a cube, and the distance of each is taken to be r.

Contemporary LENR Technology Patents (utility)

“Explosive nuclear fusion device”

US 20130087062 A1- Assignee - Archie Lou Tengzelius

Publication date: Apr 11, 2013 - Priority date: Oct 11, 2011https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

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ABSTRACT

This discovery describes a new process to produce large violent explosive quantities of thermal energy with a device through mass conversion under mild conditions by using hydride containing materials to be activated in the presence of group VIIIB and VIB elements causing nuclear fusion followed by sudden disassociation of the unstable result yielding stable products and large excess thermal energy.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an explosive admixture within a sealed container detonated by heating to bring about a sudden release of large excess thermal energy as a result of nuclear fusion. Protons orbited by two electrons, also referred to as hydride ions provided by a finely divided metal hydride powder and mixed with a nickel or copper powder or derivatives thereof are caused to fuse by heating to a temperature exceeding 200 Celsius followed by disintegration of the resulting unstable nucleus yielding an explosive thermal energy release and products whose total mass is predicted to be diminished by current theories of Physics.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the discovery that hydride ions contained in finely divided metal hydride prepared under dry inert conditions are activated by heating in the presence of finely divided nucleus within nickel or copper or chemical compounds thereof. Fusion with said nuclei results in unstable products. Said products subsequently explosively disintegrate into stable species accompanied by extensive liberation of heat energy.

CLAIMS(7)

1. A method for creating an explosive by mixing a finely divided metal hydride powder prepared and handled under inert atmosphere conditions and Group VIIIB or Group VIB metals or compounds thereof also as a finely divided powder prepared and handled within an inert atmosphere and placing said mixture in a steel cavity capable of being tightly sealed. A self sustained violent exothermic explosive reaction is initiated by heating the capsule to a temperature above 200 Celsius.

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2. A method of initiating the explosion as described in claim 1, by igniting a thermite coating formed around the steel capsule containing the powder admixture.

3. A method for catalyzing the explosive as described in previous claims by admixing up to 10 percent by weight of lithium borohydride in a finely divided state prepared and handled under a dry inert atmosphere.

4. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction as described in previous claims whereby finely divided boron, boron nitride or boron carbide is substituted for lithium borohydride.

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5. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby finely divided nickel, raney nickel or nickel hydride prepared under dry inert atmosphere is admixed with magnesium hydride prepared by repeated cycles of heating magnesium turnings under a hydrogen atmosphere followed by ball milling using charcoal in small mounts to facilitate embrittlement. Repeating this process many times results in a very reactive magnesium hydride of high purity which was carefully handled in a dry box under hydrogen atmosphere for explosive preparation.

6. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby solid constituents are suspended in inert to the substances contained therein.

7. A method for preparing the explosive device as described in previous claims whereby solid powdered constituents are mechanically compressed prior to encapsulating within a steel chamber

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“Usable electrical energy from a metal-hydrogen reaction”

Grant DE 202013004104 U1 - Assignee - Thomas Walter

Publication date: May 28, 2013 - Priority date: May 5, 2013 http://www.google.com/patents/DE2020…

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ABSTRACT

From an energy source generates a device comprising the heat from a metal-hydrogen reaction, and converts them into electrical usable energy, characterized in that heat energy is produced by a metal-hydrogen reaction, and converts them by means of superheated steam, and a turbine coupled to the generator into electrical energy, so usable electrical energy outputs.

“Low Energy Nuclear Thermoelectric System”

US 20130263597 A1 - Assignee - Nicolas Chauvin

Publication date: Oct 10, 2013 - Priority date: Mar 29, 2012

https://www.google.com/patents/US2013…

ABSTRACT

A low energy nuclear thermoelectric system for a vehicle which provides a cost-effective and sustainable means of transportation for long operation range with zero emission using an onboard low energy nuclear reaction thermal generator. The present invention generally includes a thermal generator within a thermal enclosure case, an energy conversion system linked with the thermal generator, an energy storage system linked with the energy conversion system, a cooling system and a central control system. The thermal generator reacts nickel powder with hydrogen within a reactor chamber to produce heat. The heat is then transferred to the energy conversion system to be converted into electricity for storage in the energy storage system. The cooling system provides cooling for the various components of the present invention and the control system regulates its overall operation. The present invention may be utilized to power a vehicle in an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective manner.

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BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention generally relates to a low energy nuclear thermoelectric system for a vehicle which includes a thermal generator within a thermal enclosure case, an energy conversion system linked with the thermal generator, an energy storage system linked with the energy conversion system, a cooling system and a central control system. The thermal generator reacts nickel powder with hydrogen within a reactor chamber to produce heat. The heat is then transferred to the energy conversion system to be converted into electricity for storage in the energy storage system. The cooling system provides cooling for the various components of the present invention and the control system regulates its overall operation. The present invention may be utilized to power a vehicle in an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective manner.

There has thus been outlined, rather broadly, some of the features of the invention in order that the detailed description thereof may be better understood, and in order that the present contribution to the art may be better appreciated. There are additional features of the invention that will be described hereinafter and that will form the subject matter of the claims appended hereto. In this respect, before explaining at least one embodiment of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction or to the arrangements of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced and carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein are for the purpose of the description and should not be regarded as limiting.

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“Stirling engine device for converting heat energy of hot gas into mechanical work, has cylinder storing operating gases, where heating of operating gases is performed by reaction of reaction metal with reaction gas”

DE 102011103832 A1 - Assignee - Jürgen Weber

Publication date: Jun 1, 2011 - Priority date: Jun 1, 2011 https://www.google.com/patents/DE1020…

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Abstract

The device (100) has a piston (120) mounted and reciprocally moved in front and rearward directions in cylinders through operating gases that is stored in the cylinder. Pressure of the operating gases is temporally predetermined-changed using a temperature controller, and heating of the operating gases is performed by a reaction of a reaction metal with a reaction gas. The reaction metal and reaction gas are provided in a region closer to a closed front surface (114) of the cylinder, where the reaction gas is supplied with the cylinder by a feed line and formed by hydrogen.

[0006] In Stirling engine system of the invention, by the feature combination that a heating of the working gas being provided in particular the possibility of heating of the working gas inside said at least one cylinder of the Stirling engine system by a reaction of a reactive metal and a reaction gas. This implies a compact design with a comparatively low weight. The crucial factor is the high energy gain, which is generated by means of the materials used in this invention. Because the heat-generating reaction proceeds without the consumption of oxygen and therefore can be installed in the interior of the cylinder, a fast-acting, direct heat without the interposition of another heat transfer medium is possible, as is the case in the conventional case by the material of the cylinder wall. In this way, the working gas can be brought to an average operating temperature more rapidly than in the prior art.

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“System and method for supplying hydrogen and deuterium to lenr and e-cat based energy generating systems”

US 20140099252 A1 - Assignee - Marc Kenneth Chason, Daniel Roman Gamota, Rick Latella

Publication date: Apr 10, 2014 - Priority date: Oct 9, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/US2014…

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ABSTRACT

An approach for supplying hydrogen and/or deuterium to LENR and E-Cat based energy generating systems includes receiving a source material that is rich in hydrogen and/or deuterium. A gaseous form of at least one of those elements is extracted from the source material via electrochemical dissociation, hydrocarbon recovery, or a suitable mechanical process. The gaseous form of the element is preferably filtered to remove water vapor and other impurities before being pressurized and supplied to the energy generating system. Advantages of the approach include enhanced safety and system portability due to elimination of a need for pressurized gas storage tanks.

“Underwater vehicle, such as submarine, torpedo or underwater drone for civilian or military use, has low energy nuclear reactor, which provides vast propulsion and ship operating energy”

DE 102012016526 A1 - Assignee - Ingo Heinscher

Publication date: Feb 20, 2014 - Priority date: Aug 20, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/DE1020…

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ABSTRACT

The underwater vehicle has a low energy nuclear reactor, which provides the vast propulsion and ship operating energy. The reactor generates heat energy, which drives a Stirling engine, which then transfers the mechanical force on a main shaft of the ship. An electrical generator is provided for supplying the electrical power required for operation of the ship.

“Rotational annular airscrew with integrated acoustic arrester”

CA 2824290 A1 - Assignee - The Boeing Company, Matthew D. Moore, Kelly L. Boren

Publication date : May 12, 2014 - Priority date: Nov 12, 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/CA2824…

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ABSTRACT

A propulsion system and methods are presented. A substantially tubular structure comprises a central axis through a longitudinal geometric center, and a first fan rotates around the central axis, and comprises a first fan hub and first fan blades.

The fan hub is rotationally coupled to the substantially tubular structure, and the first fan blades are coupled to the first fan hub and increase in chord length with increasing distance from the first fan hub. A second fan is rotationally coupled to the substantially tubular structure and rotates around the central axis and contra-rotates relative to the first fan. Second fan blades are coupled to the second fan hub, and a nacelle circumscribing the first fan and the second fan is coupled to and rotates with the first fan.

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[0048] The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor 126 and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor 128 are coupled to at least one energy source. The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor 126 and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor 128 may be directly coupled to the at least one energy source, or through various control and/or power distribution circuits. The energy source may comprise, for example, a system to convert chemical, solar or nuclear energy into electricity within or coupled to a volume bearing structure. The energy source may comprise, for example but without limitation, a battery, a fuel cell, a solar cell, an energy harvesting device, low energy nuclear reactor (LENR), a hybrid propulsion system, or other energy source.

Historical LENR Technology Patents (prior to 2007)

“Cold nuclear fusion thermal generator”

EP 0461690 - A2 Assignee - The Boeing Company

Publication date: Dec 18, 1991 - Priority date: Jun 13, 1990

https://www.google.com/patents/EP0461…

ABSTRACT

A method and apparatus are provided for generating heat energy by the coldfusion of hydrogen with boron or lithium in an electrolytic cell (1).

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DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] The figure is a plan sectional view of a cell for generating heat by cold fusion showing the hydrogen-adsorbing cathode, the anode, the reaction vessel and heat exchange vessel.

[0013] Referring to the figure, a sectional view of a cell 1 for generating heat by cold fusion is shown. Cell 1 is electrolytic in nature, current passing between anode 2 and cathode 3. Anode 2 comprises ring 4 of conductive metal surrounding cathode 3. A plurality of T-shaped fins 5 are attached to ring 4 to increase its surface area.

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[0014] Cathode 3 is a composite of a hydrogen adsorbing agent, such as an alumosilicate molecular sieve, an inert and/or hydrogen adsorbing metallic conductor such as platinum, or a zeolyte catalyst; and ¹¹B isotope, preferably amorphous elemental boron. The matrix is formed to be microporous with uniform lattice vacancies sized to allow retention of hydrogen nuclei at the active (cathodic) surface and the escape of helium or alpha particles, such as the adsorption/desorption processes occurring in packed-column gas-chromatographs or vapor-fractometers.

The boron should be interspersed in the matrix as thoroughly as possible to increase the reaction probability between itself and the adsorbed hydrogen nuclei. Cathode 3 has a right circular cylindrical outside shape and a plurality of walls 7 and channels 8 for flow of electrolyte 16. The grid shape provides increased surface area along and within walls 7 for the cathodic adsorption of hydrogen and for nuclear reactions with boron to occur.

[0015] Reaction vessel 12 is preferably made of a strong, heat conductive, non-magnetic alloy such as austenitic stainless steel. Fluid inlet 9 and an optional outlet (not shown) are provided to augment electrolyte 16 with water or chemicals and remove spent reaction products. Vent 10 with pressure relief valve 19 is provided adjacent cathode 3 for releasing alpha particles and/or helium produced by fusion, and vent 11 with pressure relief valve 20 is provided at anode 2 to exhaust oxygen from electrolysis of water. If desired, the helium can be sparged through reaction vessel 12 to encourage mixing.

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“A system for producing neutrons and heat by nuclear fusion in a gas absorbed on a metal”

(GRANT) EP 0394204 B1 - Assignee: Ente per le nuove tecnologie, l’energia e l’ambiente ( ENEA)‎

Inventors: Francesco Scaramuzzi, Ninno Antonella De,Salvatore Podda, Antonio Frattolillo,Giuseppe Lollobattista, Marcello Martone,Luciano Mori, Lorenzo Martinis

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Issued: Sep 20, 1995 - Priority date: Apr 18, 1989

https://www.google.com/patents/EP0394…

CLAIMS(6)

A system for producing neutrons and heat by nuclear reaction in a gas adsorbed and/or absorbed on a metal by means of an equipment which comprises as fundamental components: a reaction vessel (10) immersed in a temperature-controlled environment (11), for varying the temperature thereof in the range between about 77 K and about 300 K, containing a metal with a high capacity of adsorption and/or absorption for hydrogen and its isotopes, in such physical form as to expose a large surface of the metal to the gas, said vessel being connected to a gaseous deuterium supply (13), through a pressure reducer (14), a vacuum pump ana a pressure gage (15) for varying the pressure thereof in the range from about 3,99 MPa (40 bar) to about 1,33 Pa (10⁻² torr), valves (16, 17) being provided downstream of the deuterium supply (13) and upstream of the reaction vessel (10), as well as a thermocouple (18) for measuring the temperature of the said metal.

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A system according to claim 1, in which said metal is titanium.

A system according to claim 1, in which said metal is employed in the physical form of sponges, chips, powders and the like with a high surface/volume ratio.

A system according to any of the preceding claims in which said environment (11) is a Dewar vessel and the control of the temperature is effected by introducing therein liquid nitrogen or other coolant.

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A system according to claim 1, wherein said gaseous deuterium supply consists of deuterium-enriched hydrogen.

A process for producing neutrons and heat by nuclear reaction in a gas absorbed and/or absorbed on a metal, consisting in making gaseous deuterium to contact with a metal having a high capacity of absorption and/or adsorption for hydrogen and its isotopes, in such a physical form as to expose a large surface of the metal to the gas under conditions of a pressure which is caused to vary in the range between about 3,99 MPa (40 bar) and about 1,33 Pa (10⁻² torr) and of a temperature which is caused to vary in the range between about 77 K and about 300 K.

DESCRIPTION

[0014] The present invention therefore suggests an equipment according to claim 1 in which it is taken advantage of a gaseous deuterium supply and it isn’t made use of heavy water.

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[0015] The equipment employs titanium or metals with similar characteristics, in particular with a high capacity of adsorption and/or absorption of hydrogen and its isotopes.

[0016] The present invention also suggests a procedure for the cold fusion of deuterium nuclei as defined in claim 6, in which the three parameters of temperature, pressure and concentration of deuterium in titanium or other metal, as above mentioned, are acted upon.

[0017] For achieving the objects disclosed above it has been started out with the idea of verifying the possibility of achieving deuterium-deuterium reactions in the presence and/or at the interior of a metal (titanium has been chosen for its availability) endowed with a high capability of absorption for hydrogen and its isotopes, preferably employed in a form with a high surface/volume ratio, like in particular sponges, chips, powders, etc., in a deuterium atmosphere with variable pressure and temperature.

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[0018] The measured neutron emission has turned out to be of levels markedly greater than the background (by 1 to 3 magnitude orders), with emissions in the order of 10³ n/s.

[0019] The conditions under which it has been possible to carry out the measurement relate to two sets of very different thermodynamical parameters: 1. deuterium at about 3,99 MPa (40 bar) in contact with titanium at temperatures which vary between about 77 K and about 300 K in the presence of titanium which is supposedly deuterium free (nearly in the absence of titanium hydride); 2. under the opposite condition, i.e. with a probable presence of hydride, with a very low pressure (1,33 Pa) (about 10⁻² torr) and a temperature which rises back to the room temperature.

[0020] It is reasonable to believe that the observed phenomena are correlated to a phase transition, in the two senses, of the deuterium-titanium system. It is not to be excluded that situations can occur of the type of the “supersaturation”, which could justify a sudden translation in a certain neighborhood.

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[0030] It should be emphasized at this point that, even if the nuclear fusion has been heretofore discussed, the term fusion should not be construed so as to limit all of the phenomena that are exploited at the nuclei level to a strictly defined fusion, but it should be understood that the invention can be implemented in the same way even if such nuclear phenomena are of some other kind and, therefore, the term “nuclear fusion” should be used interchangeably with the term “nuclear reaction”.

“Energy generation and generator by means of anharmonic stimulated fusion”

GRANT - EP 0767962 B1 - Assignee - Francesco Piantelli

Publication date: Jun 2, 1999 - Priority date Jan 27, 1994

https://www.google.com/patents/EP0767…

ABSTRACT

A process of energy generation and an energy generator by means of anharmonic stimulate fusion of hydrogen isotopes absorbed on metal comprising a charging step on a metallic core (1) of a quantity of hydrogen isotopes H and D; a heating step in which said core (1) is heated (9) to reach a temperature higher than Debye’s temperature of the material composing the core; a startup step wherein a vibrational stress is produced with a rise time less than 0.1 seconds which activates a nuclear fusion of said hydrogen isotopes; a stationary step during which it is exchanged (3,5) the heat produced by the H+D nuclear fusion reaction which occurs in the core (1) because of a steady keeping of a coherent multimodal system of stationary oscillations.

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“Cold fusion apparatus”

US 20070140400 A1 - Assignee - John Hodgson

Publication date: Jun 21, 2007 - Priority date: Oct 19, 2005 https://www.google.com/patents/US2007…

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ABSTRACT

In accordance with the present invention, this invention creates the process of cold fusion with the creation of electromagnetic scalar waves and the deuterium loading of cathode in the invention. This process of combining the deuterium loading and current flow of the cathode with the electromagnetic scalar waves are used to allow temporary changes of the columbic barrier and the van der walls forces to lower levels that will allow fusion of the deuterium atoms in the helium atoms and the release of energy that is involved. Once all these conditions are met cold fusion will occur.

REFERENCED BY (ED Note: A Navy and an MIT LENR patent)

US8419919 - Sep. 21, 2007 Apr 16, 2013 Jwk International Corporation “System and method for generating particles”

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US20110233061 - Mar 25, 2011Sep, 29, 2011 Ahern Brian S. “Amplification of energetic reactions”

“Method of maximizing anharmonic oscillations in deuterated alloys”

GRANT - US 5411654 A - Assignee - Massachusetts Institute Of Technology

Publication date: May 2, 1995 - Priority date: Jul 2, 1993 https://www.google.com/patents/US5411…

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ABSTRACT

For a condensed matter system containing a guest interstitial species such as hydrogen or its isotopes dissolved in the condensed matter host lattice, the invention provides tuning of the molecular orbital degeneracy of the host lattice to enhance the anharmonicity of the dissolved guest sublattice to achieve a large anharmonic displacement amplitude and a correspondingly small distance of closest approach of the guest nuclei. The tuned electron molecular orbital topology of the host lattice creates an energy state giving rise to degenerate sublattice orbitals related to the second nearest neighbors of the guest bonding orbitals. Thus, it is the nuclei of the guest sublattice that are set in anharmonic motion as a result of the orbital topology.

This promotion of second nearest neighbor bonding between sublattice nuclei leads to enhanced interaction between nuclei of the sublattice. In the invention, a method for producing dynamic anharmonic oscillations of a condensed matter guest species dissolved in a condensed matter host lattice is provided. Host lattice surfaces are treated to provide surface features on at least a portion of the host lattice surfaces; the features have a radius of curvature less than 0.5 microns. Upon dissolution of the guest species in the treated host lattice in a ratio of at least 0.5, the guest species undergoes the dynamic anharmonic oscillations.

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DESCRIPTION

GOVERNMENT RIGHTS IN THE INVENTION

This invention was made with U.S. Government support under contract No. F19628-90-C-0002, awarded by the Force. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

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FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to techniques for enhancing conditions for causing anharmonic oscillations in protonated and deuterated alloys, leading to enhanced electron tunneling between degenerate molecular orbitals and enhanced nuclei interaction; and more particularly relates to materials processing techniques for maximizing anharmonic oscillations of hydrogen isotope nuclei in the interstices of such alloys.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Strong force nuclear interaction of hydrogen isotopes, deuterium in particular, have been extensively studied in the regime above 30,000 eV. Tunneling phenomena through the Coulomb barrier has been well characterized and described as requiring tunneling through a barrier of 0.7 Å in width and 400,000 eV in height.

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Interaction of nuclei in a palladium-deuterium condensed matter system has been shown to be 107 times more probable than the Coulomb tunneling described above. The reposed successes in this system are best accounted for by a palladium-deuterium interaction scheme occurring in the presence of strong wave function overlap. It has been shown that such wave function overlap may be achieved via specific molecular orbital degeneracy conditions.

Fundamental shifts in the molecular orbital topology of a condensed matter system are known to be achievable via sub-micron, nanometrically-sized surface features. Such nanometric space features alter the surface and near surface electrochemistry of a condensed matter system, and thereby effect the orbital topology of the system.

This effect cannot be attributed to a simple increase in surface area; rather, the surface character at the nanoscale can only be predicted from a real-space molecular orbital perspective. The resulting properties are purely quantum-mechanical in nature, i.e., they cannot be derived by a simple extension of continuum elasticity theory to the nanoregime. Thus, nanometric, low-dimensional surface features can be expected to interact with electromagnetic fields and radiation in a corresponding quantum-mechanical nature.

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SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In view of the above considerations, the inventors herein have recognized that for a condensed matter system containing a guest interstitial species such as hydrogen or its isotopes dissolved in the condensed matter host lattice, tuning of the molecular orbital degeneracy of the host lattice via the methods of the invention enhances the anharmonicity of the dissolved guest sublattice to achieve a large anharmonic displacement amplitude and a correspondingly small distance of closest approach of the guest nuclei. The electron molecular orbital topology of the host lattice creates an energy state giving rise to degenerate sublattice orbitals related to the second nearest neighbors of the guest bonding orbitals.

Thus, it is the nuclei of the guest sublattice that are set in anharmonic motion as a result of the orbital topology. The invention provides methods for enhancing this guest lattice anharmonicity such that promotion of second nearest neighbor bonding between sublattice nuclei leads to enhanced interaction between nuclei of the sublattice.

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In one aspect, the invention provides a method for producing dynamic anharmonic oscillations of a condensed matter guest species dissolved in a condensed matter host lattice. In the method, host lattice surfaces are treated to provide surface features on at least a portion of the host lattice surfaces; the features have a radius of curvature less than 0.5 microns. Thereupon dissolution of the guest species in the host lattice in a ratio of at least 0.5, the guest species undergoes the dynamic anharmonic oscillations.

“Production of fusion energy”

EP 0473681 B1- Assignee - Ab Teknisk Utveckling Ehr - Inventors Erik Haeffner

(GRANT) Issued Dec 27, 1995 - Priority dateMay 19, 1989

https://www.google.com/patents/EP0473…

[0015]

In an application of the invention the electrolyte consists of a 2 - 10 % by weight suspension in heavy water of magnetic particles e.g. magnetite, Fe₃O₄, of about 10 nm size. When a current flows through the plasma created by a spark or an electric arc in a high voltage discharge a magnetic field is formed which will considerably increase the apparent density around the plasma track. Thus the current itself will create a magnetic enclosure of the generated deuterons and other charged particles. This effect may be strengthened by surrounding the tank with a magnetic field, whereby the internal fluid pressure in the whole suspension D₂O - Fe₃O₄ can be substantially increased. Of course this effect cannot resist the pressure from the generated steam, which rapidly escapes, but after that the deuteron generating reactions in the spark has occurred.