"Nobel laureate Brian Josephson has many many reasons to be saying 'I told you so' to the mainstream scientific community in regards to cold fusion research and the rewards of LENR energy. Anyone who he says it to owes him an apology. After all, he discovered the Josephson Effect and realized the possibility of 'cold fusion' from the beginning. He must be smarter and more open minded than most.

In 1970, a Cambridge professor wrote his recollection of traveling to Kyoto to accept the London Prize on behalf of his former student. His Physics Today article puts things in perspective and is a delightful read. "Pathological Disbelief" presents Brian Josephson's position."

-end quote.... from the Prologue to the Conversation.

"About Eight Years ago a 22-year-old Student Showed his Professor Some Calculations on Quantum Tunneling. Now this Professor Tells Us how Josephson Discovered his Effect" by Philip W. Anderson, Physics Today, 1970

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"Pathological Disbelief" by Brian D. Josephson, Nobel Laureates' meeting, Lindau 2004

Epilogue to the Conversation

Thanks everyone. This has been a valuable conversation about Brian Josephsons' thoughts on science and pathological disbelief. I appreciate each of your contributions, solid perspectives, and information shared, i.e. the love of learning.

Perhaps it would be OK with everyone engaged in the conversation here if I write an article of our discussion and publish it where it's accessible to others interested in this discourse.

I'll go ahead and write it up; contacting each of you for review/edits/approval and posting.

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This bit of prose is dedicated to problems.

"S.O. Solution Orientation" –gbgoble

Problems, problems, problems… oiy vey!

Why not? Go ahead… take the plunge!

Dive deep beyond the surface of the problem.

We find ourselves suspended in a sea of solutions.

Infinite in their manifestation, variety, and form.

Enjoy!

Problems, problems, problems… oiy vey!

Why not? Go ahead… take the plunge!

Problems? Dive deep…

The Conversation

Aleksander Student

So, great scientist and crank are not mutually exclusive notions.

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Yes I agree. To be clear, the unknown is mutually exclusive even if it exists.

"Discovery"

It's of great use to wonder

Why our minds wander

In awe of it all

Being forever true

Seeking the new

We are just now discovering

That which has always been

Impatiently awaiting us

Craving our keen attention

Hoping for deeper understanding

Awesome is

The wonder of discovery

And the power

Of awe

gbgoble2009

"LENR A Sense of History in the Making"

"Contemporary LENR Technology Patents – Popularly Known as Cold Fusion Energy"

"Alights"

The nest instinct through

True imaginings delight

Leads to what's right

Color the lining new

Tufts soft and light

Bits shiny bright

Into completion it grew

Winged creatures alight

Home for the night

—gbgoble2010—

Alight

  1. To come down and settle, as after flight.
  2. To come by chance: alight on a happy solution.
  3. To dismount from a horse or vehicle.

Word Origin & History

"On fire" – Early 15c, apparently from M.E. aliht , pp. of alihton (O.E. on-lihtan)

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"To light up" also "to shine upon"

Middle English – alighten , from Old English – ālīhtan : ā- , intensive pref. + līhtan

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"To relieve of a burden" – From līht , light ; see light (orig. an animal mount) "of weight"

Wayne Senior Researcher

I think the main argument against cold fusion is not so much that it "never happens", but rather that the rate at which it can happen is insufficient to generate enough heat to be useful. Basically, looking at the table that was included, the fact that only some places claimed they could detect something (I don't think that was exactly "reproduce"), would indicate that.

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I think that Josephson overstates his case in that presentation. Scientist do have a problem with following the crowd and clinging to populists. Nevertheless, even when populists control the floor, they cannot stop what is true forever. That powerpoint presentation is more than 10 years old. If that is all they have, they have not made much progress. I don't see anything evil about him deciding to look at cold fusion. However, it is hard to know Josephson's position on the matter now compared to 2004. Is he willing to change his mind or is his mind made up? These are the questions I would ask.

There is a process known as muon catalysed fusion. There are a lot of things that make it highly impractical as an energy source (where to find large sources of deuterium, the required liquid helium temperatures, sources of surface 4 MeV muons, etc.), but the effect itself is, as far as I can tell, actually real.

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Peter Astronomer Architect

Wayne,

I agree, Josephson may give an unintended impression that cold fusion is nearer usefulness than it is, but that wasn't his point. I don't think he overstates the case about 'theoretical inertia' at all.

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The continued flow of proofs is such that I'm sure he hasn't changed his mind. Quasicrystals is a recent one. Dan Shecktman was called a crank, crackpot, lost his job and had his life ruined. Only 40 years later did they find he was right all along and give him a Nobel Prize!

There's an astonishingly bad but common argument; "well all these things get through in the end". That entire failure of logic typified the issue. It might equally be less than 1% that 'get through' in a lifetime!

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Rigorous scientific falsification is essential, but dismissal by a-priori comparison with current theory seems to have taken over from the Scientific Method for at least the 'rump' of the profession, and I suggest it should be eradicated!

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Wayne,

Brian's powerpoint presentation, being 10 years old, becomes even more relevant at the time of useful LENR energy. Yes they have now cracked the cold fusion puzzle, each patent on the list is worth studying. From these one sees that LENR is a multidisciplinary art, it requires scientific knowledge of nano, quantum, plasmonics, advanced materials and dopants (as in semiconductors) and much much more. If you are curious about this you can go to the Linked In Low Energy Nuclear Reaction membership list and find a peer to speak with about the quantum effects occurring in the low energy nuclear reactive environment.

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Peter summed it up nicely, "Rigorous scientific falsification is essential, but dismissal by a-priori comparison with current theory seems to have taken over from the Scientific Method for at least the 'rump' of the profession, and I suggest it should be eradicated!"

How many more unknown phenomenon that shake up theory are lurking out there? What will happen to those who first report their existence? How long will it take to fully understand and master it? Why should any scientist who is struggling to understand something new be prosecuted for it by other scientists? Consider that any branch of science, in its' infancy, was also not understood and had little established theoretical underpinning.

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Cold fusion has grown up and is now becoming useful LENR Energy. Google NASA LENR or Navy LENR or NARI LENR. See quantumheat.org or lenrcities.com. All that is well and good to see, yet what remains is "I told you so", LENR, and "pathological disbelief".

There is no place for a closed mind or pre-judgement in science. Last year I wrote a piece about the history of cold fusion research, it's short and a fun read.

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"LENR the Debutante at the Ball"

The Cold Fusion research of Fleischmann and Pons was an anomaly in and of itself. Two electrochemists, while having a bit of fun with the maximum loading of hydrogen into palladium in an electrolytic cell, ventured into a realm of subatomic phenomenon. No one had been there before in quite this way.

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They hazarded to say it was nuclear, and got blasted…

Wayne Senior Researcher

I just did a very quick google. This was NASA LENR.

So, as I mentioned above, perhaps there is an effect, but it is not so big, just what they call "anomalous". To generate usable power, the mere existence of a few fusion events is not enough. You need to produce enough fusion reactions fast enough to generate sufficient heat that you can transfer this heat to some power source (a steam bath for example). If you only observe one event per hour for example, yes, you have fusion, but the reaction is too slow to be useful. They need to make sure they know where the heat is coming from and why. I'm not saying people should give up, but if there is any effect at all, at present, it appears to be mostly a curiosity.

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Omar PhD Senior Chemist

Wayne,

You just said it: "there is an effect" that is enough. The fact that we do not understand it or that it is not "useful" is irrelevant!

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Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Wayne,

The NASA report is 5 years old and does not include many of the important LENR works being done by the DoD, DoE, or NASA at that time. It's not a very good report. To see what's resulted from U.S. govt. advanced LENR research visit Seldon Technologies.

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Pathological Disbelief and denial of discovery is the heart of this article; written because cold fusion is now at the useful heat and the application of useful heat stage, i.e. LENR advanced science and applied engineering.

Study group think and pathological disbelief, its' negative effects. Or for a diversion, look at the heat coming off the H-Cat, read the NASA – NARI Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aerospace report by Doug Wells, or consider the Boeing Patent for a turbine powered by a low energy nuclear reactor (LENR).

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"Seldon Technologies, NASA, and LENR"

"NASA LENR Aircraft and Spaceplanes"

"Future Strategic Issues/Future Warfare [Circa 2025] Dennis Bushnell – NASA – LENR"

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"Rotational annular airscrew with integrated acoustic arrester" (patent)

CA 2824290 A1, Assignee: The Boeing Company, Matthew D. Moore, Kelly L. Boren, Publication date : May 12, 2014, Priority date: Nov 12, 2012

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ABSTRACT

A propulsion system and methods are presented. A substantially tubular structure comprises a central axis through a longitudinal geometric center, and a first fan rotates around the central axis, and comprises a first fan hub and first fan blades.

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[0048] The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor are coupled to at least one energy source. The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor may be directly coupled to the at least one energy source, or through various control and/or power distribution circuits. The energy source may comprise, for example, a system to convert chemical, solar or nuclear energy into electricity within or coupled to a volume bearing structure. The energy source may comprise, for example but without limitation, a battery, a fuel cell, a solar cell, an energy harvesting device, low energy nuclear reactor (LENR), a hybrid propulsion system, or other energy source.

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Consider that the effect may be directly or indirectly associated with the Casimir effect. Perhaps, appropriate (even if serendipitous) electrode configuration may allow such at a liquid-solid or a gas-liquid-solid-progression interface. So far, the Casimir effect has only been empirically pursued in terms of two solid surfaces in micrometre to nanometre proximity.

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The Casimir effect was both theorized and then empirically proven as a result of the investigation of van der Waal forces.

It should not be an unreasonable expectation that this effect might be extant through other states of matter, dependent on the presence and configuration of a solid surface.

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In fact, surface topology is the deciding factor regarding whether an attractive or repulsive Casimir force is exhibited.

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Chris,

Thanks, my education pales compared to any here yet your comment prompted a few thoughts.

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This field is ripe for theoretical discourse while new data, concerning isotopic shifts within the reactor, adds to this process. I'm an amateur scientific research investigative journalist and poet. A few papers I recently read seem relevant.

Casimir force, surface plasmarons, photons, and electrons come into play. Graphene and related metallic studies are of interest, LENR theorists can possibly gain insight by reading these works.

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"Graphene multiplies the power of light" Jan 2015 "Scientists have shown that graphene can convert a single photon into multiple electrons… "

"Electron Spin and Proton Spin in the Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Like Atomic Systems" December 2014 "The mechanical angular momentum and magnetic moment of the electron and proton spin have been calculated semiclassically with the aid of the uncertainty principle for energy and time."

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Also this double whammy.

"Self-destructive Effects of Magnetically-doped Ferromagnetic Topological Insulators: Magnetic atoms that create exotic surface property also sow the seeds of its destruction" Article Jan 2015

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"What we have discovered is that the Dirac mass is extremely disordered at the nanoscale, which was completely unanticipated," said J.C. Séamus Davis, a senior physicist at Brookhaven Lab and a professor at Cornell University and St. Andrew's University in Scotland, who led the research. "The analogous situation in elementary particles would be if the Higgs field was random throughout space so that the electron mass (and the mass of a car or a person) was randomly different at every location. It would be an extremely chaotic universe!"

"Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3″ Paper Dec 2014

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"Surface states of topological insulators (TIs) should exhibit extraordinary electronic phenomena when a 'Dirac-mass gap' is opened in their spectrum, typically by creating a ferromagnetic state. However, our direct visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) in a ferromagnetic TI reveals its intense disorder at the nanoscale. This is correlated with the density of magnetic dopant atoms n(r), such that Δ(r) ∝ n(r) as anticipated for surface-state–mediated ferromagnetism. Consequent new perspectives on ferromagnetic TI physics include that the quantum anomalous Hall effect occurs in this environment of extreme Dirac-mass disorder and that paths of associated chiral edge states must be tortuous. To achieve all the exotic physics expected of ferromagnetic TIs, greatly improved control of dopant-induced Dirac-mass gap disorder is therefore required."

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory,

Thanks for the links.

The Casimir effect hypothesis was offered in 1948 and empirically proven the following year. Entirely random coincidence provided that I was also born that year, thus also providing me with a convenient segue to another related issue regarding nanotechnology, Chaos Theory.

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See, even randomly authored and offered discussions, and comments therein, may provide patterns of direction!

Even early nano investigators suggested different disciplines and multiple fields would be required to bear upon the field and to provide direction and solutions. Microbiology and Biochemistry were early expectations. Simply, they felt that there was no requirement to "re-invent the wheel".

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The recently introduced field of Epigenetics is another field which may powerfully contribute. In fact, it appears that nature has been abiotically inventing nano machines even before the appearance of "mechanical" organisms. So, besides answering questions about biochemistry beyond Genetics, Epigenetics should also provide some answers regarding the 500 million years of abiotic, "chemical" evolution which preceded Life; which will also provide for how all the wheels were invented.

Noise has long been a serious issue in electronic design. Noise may be harmonic interference or random interference. Radio and TV "Static" involves signal interference by many other signals. This may be "and/or" both. But, regardless of wave or photon, EM proceeds as an ordered disturbance. So, even if the static "population" is random, its elements/entities are those of "order". Gases are entirely noisy without the application of constraints. But their fluid particles are entities of order, as atoms and molecules.

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Heisenberg introduced Uncertainty as the limitation of measurement. But there is also an uncertainty imposed by Fundamental Noise at the quantum scale. This is now considered in terms of "vacuum energy" and "fluctuations"; ZPE.

Universality is the apex mathematical production of Chaos Theory; so named because it applies to all systems. Most simply, it predicts predictability. It is simple and, thereby, elegant. Chaos Theory required the existence of electronic computers. It applies their brute number crunching capacity to simple algebraic equations.

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It, most simply, answers the question, "what if we do this?". Here is Algebra that may treat any system, regardless of size or complexity. It also tells you why and how it will hurt if you do that.

From simple input it analyzes the future state of a system regarding degrees of order, turbulence and chaos. Meta-materials are macro-physical systems with quantum to nanoscale to micrometre properties.

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While nano devices are simple systems they are meant to interact within systems. The nature of these systems will determine the efficiency, the performance, of included nano devices. Here we might consider those devices in terms of fluid particles and even as Brownian bodies. I hold Einstein's paper on Brownian Motion as his best work.

This returns us to the Casimir Effect; and electrical and magnetic forces. With such tiny machines, their tiny parts only exhibit tiny separations and great surface area to volume ratios.

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They are Top-ology Heavy.

They cannot simply be scaled down. They are subject to forces far greater than earthly gravity on our machines of greater scale.

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Perhaps, Casimir force at least provides that batteries and such be contemplated more in terms of nano topology and surface/volume ratios.

We might consider surface to volume ratio as the primary physical relationship describing all scales and their effective forces. Cosmologically, it determines the nature of Black Holes.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Me, I like packing Occam's razor; the only knife that might be brought to a gun fight. I like things simple; elegant. I like to weigh things on a simple balance of deduction and induction. I like to approach Science as the Blind Lady approaches Justice.

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I limit my use of :)s and avoid lol s. Otherwise, the preceding might just have had as many of these citations possible :)

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Chris,

"The Casimir effect hypothesis was offered in 1948 and empirically proven the following year. Entirely random coincidence provided that I was also born that year, thus also providing me with a convenient segue to another related issue regarding nanotechnology, Chaos Theory."

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I was born January 1958. What you say gives me pause to consider, Chaos Theory and me! NASA was birthed January 1958. The Rand Corporation presented the Space and Aeronautics Handbook to the president at that time. Go figure, I'm fascinated by the space and aeronautics application of LENR energy.

"Kennedy NASA LENR Adaptation"

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory, :)

See, Random Chance or Deterministic Fate? Go figure, indeed. I submit that, here, "shut up and calculate", especially with mathematical approaches of estimation, probability and statistics, only leads down the old rabbit hole!

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Universality certainly provides, and describes how, order may appear from chaos and pass to further chaos.

Gambling and Insurance provide that you can't beat the house.

Imagine being addicted to betting money on penny flipping. Oh. I just described gambling, entirely. Systems? Only cheating really works. How long that goes undetected, however, is entirely unpredictable. Any talented cheater might get caught out, randomly, while a less skilled cheater might get away with it "over a run" See, more random chance.

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So, me and Casimir and you and Rand. Perhaps we should consider Numerology , Meaning Through Numbers. For me I detect a powerful relationship from the number combination.

1-9-4-9. Its exactly the same for me and The Effect! WOW! Spooky…….

And what's with all those 1958s?

Should we check to see what Nostradamus predicted for those years? Were we already famous? Are we yet? Will we be? Does it require a direct prediction by a powerfully adept prophet to target for individuals such as ourselves. If we haven't been prophesied to exist, do we now, actually exist?

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Is pain a reliable determinant? (Note the double entendre.)

Maybe we only exist when we see our reflection. Oh. Really sucks to be a vampire.

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Ouch. That one hurt.

Maybe I should call 911 for an ambulance to an Emergency ward and have my funny bone examined for any serious damage!

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Would that mean that I really exist or am I just a probabilistic me? If I am cut, do I not bleed? Is bleeding an illusion? Is it virtual blood?

Turtles all the way down is bad enough. Virtual turtles all the way down, perhaps down a virtual rabbit hole, .

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Hmmmm. Maybe that's a virtual fan with virtual blades in virtual motion. Let's see what happens when I extend my virtual hand…….slowly………….

Wait a minute…..maybe if I do it really fast…….maybe I'll just think about it a little more……maybe I'll conduct a thought experiment…….or maybe…….I'll redesign my experiment…..extend some virtual thing from my virtual hand…..

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Wait…if I'm virtual, would that be a virtual thought experiment and how would I write/say that in German?

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Now my head is experiencing that spintronic effect…

Wayne Senior Researcher

Chris,

My understanding is the Casimir effect occurs when you have two metal plates separated by a very small distance in a vacuum. It seems an appealing idea, but I am not sure I see what you mean.

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Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Nano particles are like teeny tiny metal plates separated by … the vacuum part?

Hmmm, about the vacuum…

Anyways, they are separated by a very small distance (to say the least).

Wayne Senior Researcher

The metal nano particles typically would have an oxide coating (say one monolayer). In a dielectric continuum, it seems like this could still work, only the permativity would be different. Water is not particularly what I would call a "dielectric continuum", but maybe in a way.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Wayne,

Water is polar and exhibits hydrogen bonding, even at neutral pH. It exhibits cage structure. Neutrality only provides that there are equal amounts of "free" hydroxyl and hydronium ions throughout the caged webwork. Thus, liquid water exhibits structure and an attendant topology.

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"Doping" with an acid or a base reconfigures the water structure. The aqueous electrolyte presents an overabundance of hydronium or hydroxyl ions and a reconfiguration of the cage structure. That it is in flux does not eliminate the hydrogen hand holding. It is water's polarity that makes it unique.

Consider this as analogous to the unique behaviour exhibited by Helium as it approaches the Absolute O of Temperature.

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So, while liquid, water is still a "dielectric continuum".

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Wayne,

While trying to approach the complexity, I am attempting to avoid complication. There are different contributing phenomena that, first, have to be approached separately before considering how they interact.

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The "cold fusion" phenomena requires this. If those electrochemists were stronger in nuclear physics they may have better pursued their considerations or at least suppressed their speculations.

Of interest is why they were doing what they were doing. Hydrogen gas is highly soluble in solid metals. This is good and bad. Brittleness of gas carrying pipes is generally consider a bad thing.

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Empiricism now shows that even solids may exhibit Brownian Motion. In some alloys and 'doped' metals, secondary metals behave in a liquid manner within the solid.

What is of interest is the noted presence of neutrons and tritium.

Cold fusion: Quote Wikipedia

Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone. They felt that such a discovery could bear significant commercial value and would be entitled to patent protection. Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest.

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Fleischmann and Pons, however, pressured by the University of Utah, which wanted to establish priority on the discovery, broke their apparent agreement, submitting their paper to the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry on 11 March, and disclosing their work via a press release and press conference on 23 March. Jones, upset, faxed in his paper to Nature after the press conference. –end quote

Jones was the physicist. Physics was trumped by other interests. Then the convention cabal cavalry led their own charge.

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I was just trying to start with easy first, and then proceed. Perhaps this better provides where I was trying to go,

So, here's the outline : Water; Hydrogen bonds, van der Wall Forces, Casimir forces, topology and reactions, Protium (Hydrogen), Neutrons, Deuterons, Heavy water, extra energy output and just where did the noted levels of neutrons and tritium come from?

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Lastly, there was a noted pattern of heat generation in the cell. What might an appropriate mathematical analysis of that provide?

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Plasma… even in a wet electrolytic cell plasma happens and plays a part.

Nowadays LENR science is usually gas, pressure, heat, and excitation applied.

Or recently hydrate… no gas, yet plasma yes?

One reason why they were doing what they were doing is, Martin Fleischmann was into plasmonics big time.

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"Palladium Medal of the Electrochemical Society Awarded to Martin Fleischmann and the Discovery that Led to the Field of Plasmonics"

Quote: The SERS phenomenon is now understood as an outstanding example of a localised surface plasmon resonance effect and its discovery led to the field of plasmonics. Fleischmann was rightly honoured for these discoveries, by the award of the Palladium Medal of the Electrochemical Society, and by election to the Fellowship of the Royal Society of London. -end quote

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Space History … Kennedy at Rice University, Texas 1962

'To hear us talk' by Robert Frost

ON A FALLEN TREE ACROSS THE ROAD

The tree a tempest with a crash of wood

Throws down in front of us is not to bar

Our passage to our journey's end for good,

But just to ask us who we think we are,

Insisting always on our own way so.

She likes to halt us in our runner tracks,

And make us get down in a foot of snow

Debating what to do with an ax.

And yet who knows obstruction is in vain:

We will not be put off the final goal

We have hidden in us to attain,

Not though we have to seize earth by the pole

And, tired of aimless circling in one place,

Steer straight off after something into space…

"Fusion Light-Speed Engine Powering a Spacecraft with 2g Thrust"

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Wayne,

OK, long story short and cut to the chase.

Pathological Disbelief: When any model is accepted part and parcel as "The Truth" , we do not have Scientists, but "True Believers".

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The Skepticism required by the Scientific Method is meant to apply to all models, those proposed and those both offered and accepted in the past; and, especially, of our very own. This last ensures better offered models.

There are about 35 models contributing to comprehending nuclear behaviour. That they are all variously successful indicates that threshing for commonalities is paramount. It also allows that we just don't know it all.

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Hydrogen is the simplest atom. After that, neutrons are thrown in the mix and things get complex and comprehension gets complicated. However, Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element and has provided much elucidation across chemistry.

We have atomic and diatomic hydrogen. Atomic hydrogen may present as a cation (a bare proton), the neutral atom or the anion, hydride. The same applies to Deuterium, with Deuteron cation as the bare nucleus. Further, both appear as diatomic, with a single or doubly positively charged cation, the neutral element and a singly or doubly charged anion.

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Simply, bare protons and bare deuteron are entirely ionized and, therefore, may be defined as plasma particles, regardless of the ambient temperature of their environment or of their energy of translation. Their diatomic double cations stand as the same. Clearly, the simple structure of Hydrogen and Deuterium allow consideration of their behaviour that is independent of the behaviour of all heavier more complex nuclei. The energy to drive complete ionization of heavier nuclei rises rapidly with atomic weight and complexity.

So, yes, plasma and plasma states must be considered as a contributing factor. One contributing factor.

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There's still that whole right place, right time thing and the matter of intentionally ensuring those.

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Wayne,

I offer my own consideration of matter and energy, regarding the states of matter, as a contribution towards some better comprehension of the "Cold fusion" phenomenon and to address Pathological Disbelief and its deep in the rut thinking.

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There is electronic chemistry and nuclear chemistry. We have Inoganic and Oganic Chemistry. We have Electrochemistry and Biochemestry. These are all electronic chemistry. We consider temperature as a contributing factor.

However, it is generally considered that nuclear chemistry entirely disregards temperature.

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I categorize the states of matter as follows.

Cryosolids: Where any solid is capable of being shattered, regardless of its general properties at any higher temperatures, it has transitioned to a different state.

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Cryoliquids: Glasses are a good example. Water might also be considered as such, because of its many unique properties not shared by liquids in general.

Super liquids: Helium should be considered as a super liquid rather than a super fluid. More correctly, both liquids and gases are fluids and both are considered in terms of fluid particles.

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Then we have the "regular" Solids. Liquids and Gases. And then there is the Plasma States. Yes, States.

Consider atomic Hydrogen. in the gas state it may exhibit many excited electronic states. But it is still a gas. However, if the entire medium is irradiated beyond an energy threshold, it is a plasma with a doubled population. The protons and electrons are now independent fluid particles. For all elements, they each have as many plasma states as they have electrons. Of course the threshold energy required to achieve each state rises with electron population of an element. We might consider that most observed plasma behaviour results from random state change fluctuations.

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Of course the heaviest nuclei would require the highest temperatures to maintain an entirely ionized state.

And then we come to nuclear chemistry. Here we might consider that if this may be affected by temperature, as EMR input, the threshold would be high indeed. I have entertained this for a long time.

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However, I have found that I was not at all alone and that my own evaluation was not but a matter of earlier offered hypotheses. Apparently, it was long ago an empirical result and a matter of a patent.

E. Fermi 1935, "…it has been demonstrated that isotopes of various elements could be converted into other isotopes of the same or different elements by bombardment with alpha particles, diplons, protons or gamma rays of very high energy…"

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Gamma rays, EMR, and temperature, yes indeed.

Enzymes, catalysts and intimate proximity allow that some interactions may occur at far lower conditions of temperature and pressure than are normally required. What about Volume? Oh, isn't that simply the 3 dimensional extension of separation, and this a matter of proximity?

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The more fulsome excerpt and link(s) follow.

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

When first we practice to conceive, what a web does then proceed!

‎Enrico Fermi's 1935 patent (Cited by 99 other patents).

"Process for the Production of Radioactive Substances"

Or any Scholarly article for high energy gamma irradiation of unstable isotopes.

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES – E. FERMI ET AL

U.S. patent #2,206,634 – Filed Oct 3, 1935 Enrico Fermi, Edoardo Amaldi, Bruno Pontccorvo, Franco Rasetti, and Emilio Segre, Rome, Italy Serial No. 43,462, In Italy October 26, 1934

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1. Claims.(Cl. 204-31)

"In more recent years it has been demonstrated that isotopes of various elements could be converted into other isotopes of the same or different elements by bombardment with alpha particles, diplons, protons or gamma rays of very high energy, and that the isotopes thus produced may be unstable so as to decompose with features similar to those of the naturally radio~active bodies. That is to say, radio-active isotopes may, in this way, be artificially produced."

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Wayne,

Here are some factors which I hold may be entirely relevant to the phenomena.

Tritium has a half-life of 12.5 years. Deuterium has a half-life of 12.32 years. But neutrons only have a half-life of about 10.3 minutes. Hmmmmm.

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So you have Hydrogen, heavy water (Deuterium oxide), electrodes and an electric current. Again, where do the neutrons and tritium come from? And, oh yeah, neutrons have a half-life of about 10.3 minutes. Also, regardless of anti-neutrinos, their decomposition generates cations and ions as protons and electrons; and heat.

Patterns of heat generation in the electrolytic calorimeter? Eventual failure of the cell?

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Well, Hydrogen absorption is deleterious to some metals inducing brittleness, for instance. Chemically, Deuterium and Tritium are just Hydrogen. Tritium is considered as a reactor "poison". When power transmission grids fail, nuclear reactors may only be moderated to a low level of reaction. If so "shut down" tritium levels and absorption by components quenches the fission. When this occurs it is a complex procedure and is not immediately remedied.

Unlike smaller facilities, larger ones are not Black Start capable. The modern generators have long employed electromagnets rather than permanent magnets. Niagara Falls retained those. The "modern" ones require available electric power to energize their electromagnets. Actually, they are no longer generators either. They are alternators. Small to medium facilities may rely on back-up diesel generators to energize the electromagnets. The Very Large facilities must have grid power dedicated and directed towards bringing them back online after blackouts, never mind reactor poisoning after long transmission interceptions.

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Regardless, dependent upon the metal, Hydrogen is a catalyst poison. Some elements of automobile exhaust poison catalytic converters and shorten their useful life span.

Gotta tell you, I wish I could afford the out-of-pocket expense for the incidentals required for experimentation, never-mind the permits required to obtain heavy water and to be allowed to have tritium generated in the process. Platinum, palladium and some other candidate materials are way above my income grade. So is the fabrication processes that I have in mind.

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C'est la vie

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Chris,

Thanks, you helped light my layman's mind, forming interesting patterns in the fog.

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(Fog: swirling H2O, gasses, dopants-n-particulates, in an electro/static/magnetic-n-temperature driven nuclear soup.)

A friend is a pharmacist having to constantly study and even return to school every couple of years just to stay afloat in the 'new', to avoid providing out of date or harmful combinations of remedies.

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I now realize that theorists, offering remedies for experimentalists or advanced applied science engineers, must have the same agile mind as a pharmacist, open to incorporating new information, relationships, and the ways facts change (subtly, and sometimes not so subtly). The 35 +or- atomic models and your knowledge of observed phenomenon (and inherent relationships) are your ever-changing pharmacopoeia, which you must constantly study, just to stay afloat, in order to contribute to the improved health of scientific knowledge. WOW

You want labs to play in… the engineers at quantumheat.org have labs and like to have theorists on the playground who can offer improvements to the fabrication processes for the low energy nuclear reactive environment. Contact me for any simple suggestions, answers, or thoughts I may offer in regards.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory.

Your pharmacist friend may or may not be an example of most pharmacists. To bad physicians don't seem to pursue this. Maybe all that golf gets in the way. Or whatever.

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Oh well, pharmacological training does require more than familiarization with science.

Recall that physicians are trained as Practitioners of the Medical Arts. What we might term "Medical Science" is mostly those fields and specialties of Biology which are directly or indirectly related to human health issues.

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PubMed in an online archive of over 22 million, and counting, peer reviewed, journal published papers, articles and reviews. Yep, online let your fingers do the walking. Now, if only more physicians visited it.

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Greg,

BTW, I had some difficulty with accessing your (original) links. Might just be my browser.

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However, I did get around to an alternate approach. That involved that I stop reading and writing comments and the same regarding private work and just take a few minutes, yesterday, to cut and paste. My Bad.

"Pathological Disbelief"

by Brian D. Josephson – Department of Physics, University of Cambridge

Lecture given at the Nobel Laureates' meeting, Lindau, June 30th, 2004

I was surprised and pleased to see the direct reference to Langmuir in the one offering and a link regarding him included.

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I had already partially composed several other comments for this discussion, but haven't finished as I found that I had to directly respond to further comments. Simply, it became a matter of prioritizing.

However, I did refer to Langmuir, in one of these. Don't touch that dial!

As Josephson pointed out, he has been cited, disingenuously, in the dismissal of novel and innovative approaches that offer any challenge to conventional dogma.

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As with Josephson, I didn't perceive any such thing when I first read his considerations. On fact, I immediately thought of how Convention has been producing hypotheses and models which appear more as counting angels on the head of a pin than anything to do with natural phenomena.

Further, regardless of the empiricism, others perform mathematical gymnastics in attempting to make these fit the conventional direction.

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What Would Kepler Think?

Cut Theory, Not Data!

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Winnowing

  • Reduce the number in a set gradually until only the best ones are left
  • Blow a current of air through in order to remove the chaff
  • Find or identify a valuable or useful part of something
  • Identify and remove the least valuable or useful
  • (of a bird) Fan (the air) with wings
  • Remove from grain
  • (of the wind) Blow

What a lovely word winnowing!

I think so too 'cause I'm a happy winnowing Minnow. So little, which doesn't really matter. Not even one teensy bitsy bit, except for the bit I find and keep.

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Quote Chris, "There are about 35 models contributing to comprehending nuclear behaviour. That they are all variously successful indicates that threshing for commonalities is paramount."

This got me realizing that I need to study models' tangents with an intentional eye to the 'threshing for commonalities'. That put me to search for models using key words and , bingo, I found this one to spend some time with.

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PCMs 'Dielectric continuum solvation models' have a lot of commonalities to both our conversation and existing LENR theories that are worth winnowing out. Particularly important, so it seems, are these polarizable continuum models' nanoscale considerations. I expect to get lost in this study for awhile, threshing about.

"Dielectric continuum solvation models" Ohio State, John Herbert Research Group

Overview

Apparent surface charge, reaction-field solvation models, better known as "polarizable continuum models" (PCMs), represent the most widely-used class of implicit solvent models in quantum chemistry. Given a definition for a solute cavity (e.g., a van der Waals surface) that defines the interface between the solute molecule and the structureless dielectric representation of the solvent, these models provide an approximate solution for Poisson's equation or the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation using relatively efficient two-dimensional surface integration, rather than the three-dimensional sampling that is required to solve these differential equations directly. PCMs greatly accelerate conformational or phase-space sampling, since explicit solvent degrees of freedom are absent. Furthermore, as compared to empirical solvation models that are intended only to predict solvation free energies, PCMs are physically-motivated models that are directly interwoven into the system's Hamiltonian, and can thus be used to explore the effects of solvation on a variety of chemical and physical properties. These include solution-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies, electronic excitation energies, and more.

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Elimination of explicit solvent molecules also greatly simplifies geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. This is especially true for excited electronic states. Compared to the ground state, where one can often view geometry optimization and molecular dynamics algorithms as "black boxes", moving about on excited-state potential surfaces is often considerably more complicated, owing to state crossing and near-degeneracies between excited states.

We are currently endeavoring to exploit PCMs to explore excited-state potential energy surfaces for macromolecular systems. In addition, the development of higher-accuracy solvation models continues, especially with regard to the non-electrostatic contributions to the solvation energy, such as the dispersion and cavitation energies, and we are beginning to explore these models as alternatives to grid-based three-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann solvers in biomolecular implicit solvent simulations.

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The PCMs that we are developing are much more physics-based than other (more empirical) implicit solvent models, and offer an attractive way to enhance conformational sampling in classical MD simulations.

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Regarding Pathological Disbelief: I refer to the NASA LENR link provided by Wayne.

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"NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with LENR Phenomenon"

I find that the following excerpted points speak to concerns I mentioned.

Some Hypotheses points…

– More than one effect may be occurring.

– Many "LENR phenomenon" occur without energetic particle or wave radiation measured.

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Do any of these encompass all reported observations?

Maybe some of the nay-sayers should pursue this before crowing and braying knee-jerk denunciations.

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This is both a mater of falsification and shit or get off the pot. Falsification may not be determined by debate. Nor may it even be by equations.

Its that mathematical approach or do the right thing for the right job (debate), once again.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Following are excerpts from Gregory's site.

"Low temperature fusion" requires fulsome review, but I offer the following two for specific reasons.

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These two (reasons) had immediately leapt to mind as appropriate directions when I first read of "Cold Fusion" experiments. They are both long understood and successfully applied in technology.

Thin films and powders.

Part of the solution. Meta-materials also offer the properties and applications of both.

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There are other areas of material fabrication that may be incorporated.

From this article are the excerpts from Gregory's site.

"LENR 'Deuterium Reactor' U.S. (NSWC IHD)"

2009 LENR patent "Low temperature fusion" is cited in both the 2013 patents listed here.

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The "Deterium Reactor" inventor, Pharis Edward Williams, authored this paper "Mechanical Entropy and its Implications" Entropy, Vol 3, 76-115, 30 June 2001.

Abstract

It is shown that the classical laws of thermodynamics require that mechanical systems must exhibit energy that becomes unavailable to do useful work. In thermodynamics, this type of energy is called entropy. It is further shown that these laws require two metrical manifolds, equations of motion, field equations, and Weyl's quantum principles. Weyl's quantum principle requires quantization of the electrostatic potential of a particle and that this potential be non-singular. The interactions of particles through these non-singular electrostatic potentials are analyzed in the low velocity limit and in the relativistic limit. It is shown that writing the two particle interactions for unlike particles allows an examination in two limiting cases: large and small separations. These limits are shown to have the limiting motions of: all motions are ABOUT the center of mass or all motion is OF the center of mass. The first limit leads to the standard Dirac equation. The second limit is shown to have equations of which the electroweak theory is a subset.

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2013 "Deuterium Reactor" US20130235963A1 This was developed after a contract with the U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC IHD). The patent contains descriptions of different sized LENR reactors.

2013 "Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing" US 8450704 B2, Assignee: MIT and United States Department of Energy. The patent relates to controlled crystalline growth and may possibly be utilized to create solid state LENR energy devices.

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"Low temperature fusion" US 20090122940 A1, Assignee: Ben R. Breed, Publication date: May 14, 2009, Priority date: Mar 18, 2005

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one embodiment, the materials must be made in one of the proper shapes. It has been noted that thin films have been successful, and this may be explained as restricting lattice interactions to the conforming planes in the film.

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The more surface area in the sample the better. The fact that powdered materials have been used successfully may be explained by the fact that the total combined surface area in a powder is very large, constituting many planes available for the interaction. Use of powders made of the selected materials is also indicated by the fact that the absorption of deuterons is much easier using them. Each small particle in a powder is more likely to contain a dominant, properly oriented, single crystal, or have a favorable shape, for the disclosed interaction to be established.

Gregory Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

Nano and LENR (energy) are mutually joined at the hip" – quote Lewis Larsen.

Specific interacting atomic geometries and associated harmonic frequencies are key. -gbgoble

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Graphene-boron nitride intensifies photons interactions with matter and electrons.

"Material Overcomes Plasmon Damping" Article Jan 2015

"Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures" Paper Dec 2014

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Abstract

Graphene plasmons were predicted to possess simultaneous ultrastrong field confinement and very low damping, enabling new classes of devices for deep-subwavelength metamaterials, single-photon nonlinearities, extraordinarily strong light–matter interactions and nano-optoelectronic switches.

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Although all of these great prospects require low damping, thus far strong plasmon damping has been observed, with both impurity scattering and many-body effects in graphene proposed as possible explanations. With the advent of van der Waals heterostructures, new methods have been developed to integrate graphene with other atomically flat materials. In this Article we exploit near-field microscopy to image propagating plasmons in high-quality graphene encapsulated between two films of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN).

We determine the dispersion and plasmon damping in real space. We find unprecedentedly low plasmon damping combined with strong field confinement and confirm the high uniformity of this plasmonic medium. The main damping channels are attributed to intrinsic thermal phonons in the graphene and dielectric losses in the h-BN. The observation and in-depth understanding of low plasmon damping is the key to the development of graphene nanophotonic and nano-optoelectronic devices.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory,

Why was Planck's QP so readily accepted? Well, convention had so badly failed that all of accepted 19th century theory was at risk. This was one of the reasons that the BBP was also termed the Ultraviolet Catastrophe.

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His solution didn't deny 19th models, but unified and extended them.

Convention suggested that he deny and ignore his results. He struggled with this, but stuck to the Scientific Method of rigorously attempting fulsome falsification. Yet, later writers have actually had the temerity to criticize him for his apparent hesitancy. He hadn't rushed or leaped to publish or profess, like some Golden Boys who immediately followed him.

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Gee, no Unification and SR, GR and QM don't play nice together. Hmmmmmm.

A conventional professor had advised a young Planck to pursue his musical talents instead of his interests in physics. He offered the conventional understanding that Physics was essentially complete and that what remained was as but bookkeeping.

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Anyone else, here, glad that Planck chose to pursue an education in Physics and retained his musical pursuit as a related "passion"? Some people can do more than one thing and even at the same time. As with physiological ambidexterity, a person might be cognitively ambidextrous and even multidextrous. Generally, physiological ambidexterity is applauded.

That does beg revisiting a philosophical question. What is the sound of one hand clapping? Well, as a tree falling in the forest, the hand disturbs the air about it. Unlike the tree, this is below the lower perceptive threshold of our hearing apparatus.

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Anyone else, here, note the powerful, intimate analogy and relationship between music and EMR? It may have been the musician who guided the physicist. A little thought allows that the EM spectrum is a great range of octaves and that octaves are powers of 2. It also allows notes follow harmonically, Just, as well as Equal in Temperament.

Interestingly, Equal Temperament Scales provide allowable, precise notes, allowable musical states, if you will. Hmmmm.

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Also interestingly, harmonic energy relationships are often destructive, even catastrophically so. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge, "Galloping Gertie" was an early example that even the wind must break step to preserve the integrity of a bridge. "Gertie" collapsed because of "aeroelastic flutter" Apparently, unlike soldiers, the wind can't be easily ordered. So, suspension bridges had to be redesigned to accommodate wind.

In the early 1970s, another dangerous harmonic phenomena was recognized. By then, centralized electrical power generating facilities had grown quite large and were mostly situated far from demand. Most nuclear facilities were purposely situated far from large urban populations.

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In the 1930's capacitor control systems were introduced for the lower voltage distribution grids. They reduced the resistance effect of conductor length. By the late 1950s they were introduced to Transmission grids. These generate large line loss with distance, despite their high voltage. The dangerous harmonic phenomena was first recognized when capacitor control was attempted on the circuits powered by a large coal fired facility, the Mohave Power Plant in Nevada It is known as Subsynchronous resonance.

"A Comprehensive Approach for Sub-Synchronous Resonance Screening Analysis Using Frequency scanning Technique "

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Turbine-generator shaft failure and electrical instability at oscillation frequencies lower than the normal system frequency result from SSR. The two shaft failures at the Mohave Generating Station in Southern Nevada led to the advancements in understanding the SSR phenomenon as well as explaining the interaction between series capacitor compensated lines and the torsion mode of steam turbine-generators."

SSR also generates blackout cascades. The problem was solved by 1992 with the addition of Thyristor power electronic control/switching devices. The technology has continued to develop, since.

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Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory,

What is important, regarding Pathological Disbelief, was identified by Peter, Omar and yourself.

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Their consideration speaks to the very heart of Pure Science, and bears repetition, even recursion, iteration and reiteration.

From Peter, and previously referred to by Yourself,

"There's an astonishingly bad but common argument; "well all these things get through in the end". That entire failure of logic typified the issue. It might equally be less that 1% that 'get through' in a lifetime!"

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"Rigorous scientific falsification is essential, but dismissal by a-priori comparison with current theory seems to have taken over from the Scientific Method for at least the 'rump' of the profession, and I suggest it should be eradicated! "

From Yourself,

"How many more unknown phenomenon that shake up theory are lurking out there? What will happen to those who first report their existence? How long will it take to fully understand and master it? Why should any scientist who is struggling to understand something new be prosecuted for it by other scientists? Consider that any branch of science, in its' infancy, was also not understood and had little established theoretical underpinning."

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"The Cold Fusion research of Fleischmann and Pons was an anomaly in and of itself. Two electrochemists, while having a bit of fun with the maximum loading of hydrogen into palladium in an electrolytic cell, ventured into a realm of subatomic phenomenon. No one had been there before in quite this way."

"They hazarded to say it was nuclear, and got blasted…"

And from Omar,

"@Wayne. You just said it: "there is an effect" that is enough. The fact that we do not understand it or that it is not "useful" is irrelevant!"

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I suggest that the point is relevant to every discussion in the LinkedIn scientific discussion groups, and all areas of Pure and Applied Science.

It can't be restated enough; nor can those comments.

Of course, Irving Langmuir's caveats regarding Pathological Science still apply, but conventional thinking can never sit as the judge.

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I further provide that " Pathological Mathematics" may support and even drive Pathological Science.

Again, Mathematical approaches are tools and that whole right tool for the right job thing.

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"They hazarded to say it was nuclear, and got blasted…"

Just because two electrochemists speculated upon a possible nuclear relationshop, didn't mean that there was no relationship, nuclear or otherwise.

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Any behaviour beyond an element of error requires investigation. Recall that Planck's constant of action is a very small value.

However, at its scale of activity and contribution it is proportionally large. Ratio can be everything.

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Further, consider that the originator of any new field or speciality, regardless of formal or informal training, is an amateur in the very field or speciality they create, by virtue of the fact that no training in that virtual, nascent, nubile field or speciality preexisted it.

All of this is captured by, as a snapshot, in regarding Max Planck.

He introduced Quantum Physics

Chris Multi-Disciplinary Generalist at Minding My Business

Gregory,

Well said. One might allow that this provides the essential difference between Pure and Applied Science.

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The former requires persistent divers while the latter requires persistent swimmers.

Further, we must keep in mind that Technology may advance, regardless of whether it is pursued as Applied Science or as Art. Science was an emergence conceived in the Bronze Age and born in the Iron Age. Technology has been with Hominids, as Art, since we passed from found tool use to fabricating tools.

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Convention, as tradition, has tool users, technicians, continuing to employ extant tools because "They Work". These may contribute embellishments, but "the song is still the same"

Some times, through serendipity, they might even find another use for a given tool. They may even recognize an improvement of some tool beyond embellishment, but again through serendipity.

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But the truest technologists are designers, innovators. They consider materials, objectively first and applications respective to that. They proceed by recognizing properties and relationships of materials at the scale at which they manipulate them and proceed by heurism and experience, memory. Here, Technology is Art.

Technology is Applied Science when knowledge of scales beneath that of the range of our gross senses may provide more intimate prediction.

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Of course, serendipity may always assist both Science and Technology.

But a mind must be ready to recognize it when it, even fleetingly, occurs.

"True Believers" can only perceive novelty as a threat, as heresy: the Devil is a liar.

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Post script

Peter Astronomer Architect

Gregory,

George Orwell deserves a mention if he hasn't had one.

His 'Crimestop' sums up the problem well.

No matter how well something is evidenced or logically consistent, if it's contrary to some doctrine previously embedded in our neural networks it's rejected a priori. All our faith is now only in manipulating ancient Arabic symbols to predict the future. Since we gave up reason for this 'shut up and calculate' era it seems to be becoming critical.

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I wonder if our slow evolution into a different kind of creature will outpace the intellectual evolution needed to understand the solutions hiding right in front of us?

"We don't yet understand 1,000th of 1% of what Nature has revealed to us" – Albert Einstein

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Crimestop – from the book "1984" by George Orwell

The first and simplest stage in the discipline, which can be taught even to young children, is called, in Newspeak, Crimestop. It means the faculty of stopping short, as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought.

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It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to establishment, and of being bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction.

Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity… orthodoxy in the full sense demands a control over one's own mental processes as complete as that of a contortionist over his body.

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Crimestop is a necessary mental discipline for good party members in George Orwell's 1984. Good citizens have no private emotions; they are in a state of constant enthusiasm about the goals set by the state. Even children can learn to avoid thinking any thoughts deemed dangerous by the state.

George Orwell's Winston Smith later is forced to give himself lessons:

He set to work to exercise himself in crimestop. He presented himself with propositions:

'The earth is flat.' 'Ice is heavier than water.' and trained himself in not seeing or not understanding the arguments that contradicted them.

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It was not easy.

It needed great powers of reasoning and improvisation.

Gregory Goble Dispatcher at Big Dog City Wide

To Chris, Peter, Wayne, Omar, and Aleksander:

Thanks for adding to this article with your contributions. Our conversation provided me with avenues of study and has given me new perspectives.

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I posted it ( "LENR Conversation between a Researcher, Chemist, Astronomer, Quantum Theorist, Student, and a Layman" http://gbgoble.kinja.com/lenr-conversat… ) , readers are appreciative of the depth of the conversation, one went far enough to say that it will become a classic in early literature of this study.

Consider becoming involved? These are my favorite groups.

For the first time in history open source research labs are working together to create a patented energy producing device that will be available for anyone anywhere to utilize at absolutely no charge. For the first time in history, these folks are doing away with the time element which delays the scientific method. Multiple labs, using exact equipment, using exact materials (from the same batch, from the same supplier), following the exact same protocols... Set up the experiment simultaneously, run it simultaneously, share data simultaneously (Internet), and observe every operation in each others' labs simultaneously (Skype). Instantaneous efforts towards rigorous both the experiment and experiment control groups with fully transparent adherence to scientific method seeking improvements towards understanding and replication.

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The Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project quantumheat.org

Then consider LENR Cities "Building the LENR Energy Ecology/Ecomomy" lenr-cities.org

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Signing out with a final tidbit... LENR from 2011

"The Flow of Energy"

by: F. Znidarsica*, Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Pennsylvania and G. A. Robertson, Institute for Advanced Studies in the Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences

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Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum - 2011

Abstract

In this paper, the flow of energy in materials is presented as mechanical waves with a distinct velocity or speed of transition. This speed of transition came about through the observations of cold fusion experiments, i.e., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) and superconductor gravity experiments, both assumed speculative by mainstream science. In consideration of superconductor junctions, the LENR experiments have a similar speed of transition, which seems to imply that the reactions in the LENR experiment are discrete quantized reactions (energy - burst vs. continuous). Here an attempt is made to quantify this new condition as it applies to electrons; toward the progression of quantized energy flows (discrete energy burst) as a new source of clean energy and force mechanisms (i.e, propulsion).

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1. Introduction

Mechanical waves are a local oscillation of material; where

* Only the energy propagates;

* The oscillating material does not move far from its initial equilibrium position; and

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* The wave travels by jumping from one particle of the medium to another. Therefore; mechanical waves transport energy and not material. However; a mechanical wave requires an initial energy input to be created. But once the initial energy is added; the wave will travel through the medium until all the energy has been transferred.

Recent observation of the speed of transition (a measure of the flow of energy) within speculative experiments seems to indicate a mechanical wave within the atomic nucleus that is discrete or quantized. This leads to the proposal of a new quantum condition; where Planck's constant emerges as a condition on the speed of the electronic wave within the electronic structure of the atom. Whereby; the speed of a transverse electronic wave equals the speed of a longitudinal mechanical wave within the nuclear structure.

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P.S.S.

The article which prompted this conversation took place at the Quantum Physics Linked In group in January of 2015, titled:

"Nobel Laureate Brian Josephson and LENR Pathological Disbelief"

Evolution (muse)

Once again, in wonder a child whistles a refrain while sitting on a hill under the shade of a tree. From above, a bird on a branch tilts its head and joyfully warbles its response.

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On a distant mountain a youth walks alone towards the high peaks. Arrives reflective of humanity, life, and wondering a part to play. A vision unfolds of all that has been and of what can be. Then returns to walk a path praying for the best for all thru-out time.

Elsewhere, an elder experiences the fruition of a hearts dream that has taken years to bring to success.

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Others watch and inspiration blossoms deep within.

It's no wonder my mind wanders in awe of it all…

Not so far in the distant future, the next generation, in fact, will look back at our generation as the last of the "fire era" and know that the term "energy shortage" was a term for un-enlightened minds. – gbgoble2009

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Gregory Goble is a Poet and scientific research investigative journalist who focuses on the cold fusion intersection of science, military, and aerospace applications, LENRgy.

gbgoble@gmail.com

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