Per aspera ad astra is a Latin phrase which means any of the following: “Through hardships to the stars” or “A rough road leads to the stars” also “To the stars through difficulties”. It’s nice to see it as NASA’s view of LENR in the recent U.S. Naval Research DeChiaro presentation.

The importance of nickel hydride and lithium aluminium hydride nanoparticles for LENR energy production got me looking into recent patents. Creating these nanoparticles is not cheap or easy. Clearly, if one develops improved economic mass production methods, creating fuel for LENR reactors will be a breadwinner. These patents by Toyota, and another by David Kidwell, caught my attention, prompting me to compose the following.

This article is put together with bits and pieces, interesting parts of the ongoing drama of cold fusion, hodge-podged together. It begins with metallic hydride nanoparticle patents considered as fuel, rambles through various patents and patent citations, jumps to the questioning of (and achievement of) LENR transmutation from U.S.Naval Research labs, then touches on controversy at a few ICCF conferences, along with a glimpse at history and contemporary cold fusion/LENR Toyota and Mitsubishi. This montage focuses for its’ final landing on the most recent Naval Research LENR presentation, the NASA view of LENR, “Mars is just the first stop; “Per aspera, ad astra.””.

Nowhere within the patents that prompted these musings is there mention of LENR. Yet, in this disjointed tome are threads that tie things together. There is also some evidence which suggests that the assignees of these nanoparticle patents might be aware of their importance to the field of LENR. In particular, the patent of David Kidwell may be a real gold mine.

In the E Cat patent, the composition of Rossi’s fuel and a starting ratio is revealed. It is stated to be 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% lithium aluminum hydride.

Ni Nanoparticles

Nickel costs around $8 a kilogram. Nickel nano particles costs around $41 for 5 grams, or right around $8,000 for a kilogram. Assay ≥99% trace metals basis form nanopowder.


resistivity 6.97 ΟΊ-cm, 20°C
avg. part. size <100 nm
bp 2732 °C(lit.)
mp 1453 °C(lit.)
density 8.9 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

SKU-Pack Size Availability Price (USD) Quantity
266981-100G $31.10

266981-500G $112.50

Lithium Pricing

The list prices for lithium raw materials are published by the major producers and are negotiated directly with buyers so there is no terminal market and virtually no third party spot market. As shown in Exhibit 8 prices have tripled since 2000; with the LCE price going from around $2,000/t to circa $6,000/t in 2011 and again in 2012, all four major producers increased prices by at least 20% due to the imbalance in the market. Talison, which until recently only sold lithium concentrates, received an average sales price for the quarter ending September 2012 of US$352/t, following two price hikes in 2012 consisting of a 10% increase for technical grade and 20% for chemical grade concentrates. Analysis of historic data has shown that Talison’s lithium prices have increased by 7% pa per annum, while production is up by 40% to 126,558 tonnes over the same period. Galaxy Resources reported in June 2012 that the Chinese lithium carbonate price had increased by 17% over the previous year to US$6,600-6,900/t for battery grade and US$6,300-6,600/t for technical grade lithium carbonate while lithium hydroxide prices increased 15% to US$6,500-6,600/t. FMC has reported that it expects prices to be fairly flat for 2013, owing to the current market conditions. However Galaxy has forecast an average of US$6,757 for lithium carbonate prices by 2015.


LiH Nanoparticles

assay 95%
form powder
particle size −30 mesh
mp 680 °C(lit.)
density 0.82 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

201049-5G $34.30
201049-10G $62.80
201049-100G $123.00
201049-500G $381.00

1 Short Ton [US] = 907 184.74 Grams
1 Long Ton [UK] = 1 016 046.91 Grams
1 Metric Ton = 1 000 000 Grams

Or about $762,000 a ton.

LiAlH4 nanoparticles

Molecular Weight: 37.95

CAS Number: 16853-85-3
SKU-Pack Size Availability Price (USD) Quantity
199877-10G $32.90
199877-25G $52.30
199877-100G $129.00
199877-500G $421.50
199877-1KG $709.00


Or about $709,000 a ton.

LiALH4, LiBH4, and Li(CH3CH2)3BH nanoparticle production, found here by Toyota, is of interest.

Nanoparticle hydrides, which (quote the patent) “can in some variations include a corresponding deuteride or tritide”, of magnesium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, boron, indium, antimony, or bismuth. - end quote


Toyota and Cold Fusion

“Investing In LENR/Cold Fusion” March 2, 2014 at Cold Fusion Now


Toyota (NYSE:TM) has had its eye on LENR from day 1. Technova, a Toyota affiliated lab, actually hired Fleischmann and Pons and essentially gave them a new life in France away from the media circus in the US. They were hired for a secret research program in LENR, continuing their work in private.

While they may have not created a commercially relevant reactor system, they did spark the interest of Toyota, whose work in LENR continues to this day. Recently Toyota replicated a key experiment of Mitsubishi, showing the massive opportunities in LENR energy as well as LENR transmutation. Toyota is a huge company and would be best for a long term investment. - end quote


The Nanoparticle Patents

“Stable Complexes of Zero-valent Metallic Element and Hydride as Novel Reagents” US 20150098885 A1
Publication date: Apr 9, 2015
Filing date: May 5, 2014
Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
Inventors: Michael P. Rowe
Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.


A composition and its method of production are provided. The composition includes at least one zero-valent metallic element atom in complex with at least one hydride molecule. The method of production includes ball-milling an elemental metal in a high-surface area form, with a hydride. The composition can be useful as a reagent for the synthesis of zero-valent metallic elemental nanoparticles.


20. The method of claim 18 wherein the zero-valent metallic element is magnesium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, boron, indium, antimony, or bismuth.


Hydrides, compounds in which metals or metalloids are bound directly to hydrogen, are relatively energetic molecules with a large variety of known and developing applications in chemistry and energy technology. Such applications include uses as reducing agents, hydrogenation catalysts, desiccants, potent bases, components in rechargeable batteries, and potentially as solid hydrogen storage vehicles in fuel cell technology.

Metal nanoparticles, particles of elemental metal in pure or alloyed form with a dimension less than 100 nm, have unique physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and other properties in comparison to their corresponding bulk metals. As such they are in use or under development in fields such as chemistry, medicine, energy, and advanced electronics, among others.

Another embodiment of this patent has been granted.

“Stable complexes of zero-valent metal and hydride as novel reagents”

US 8980219 B1
Publication type: Grant
Publication date: Mar 17, 2015
Filing date: Oct 4, 2013
Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
Inventors: Michael Paul Rowe, Rana Mohtadi, Daniel Jeffrey Herrera
Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.


Compositions of zero-valent metals in complex with hydrides and methods of synthesizing the compositions are described. A zero-valent metal can alternatively be described as a metal which is in oxidation state zero or as an elemental metal.

As used here, a “metal” can refer to an alkaline earth metal, an alkali metal, a transition metal, or a post-transition metal. The phrase “transition metal” can refer to any D-block metal of Groups 3 through 12. The phrase “post-transition metal” can refer to Group 13 through 16 metals.

As used here, a “hydride” can be a binary metal hydride (e.g. NaH, or MgH2), a binary metalloid hydride (e.g. BH3), a complex metal hydride (e.g. LiALH4), or a complex metalloid hydride (e.g. LiBH4 or Li(CH3CH2)3BH). In some examples the hydride will be LiBH4. The term “metalloid” can refer to any of boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, or polonium. The term hydride as described above can in some variations include a corresponding deuteride or tritide.


David Kidwell and Albert Epshteyn Nanoparticle Patents

“Metal Nanoparticles with a Pre-Selected Number of Atoms”

Inventors: David A. Kidwell, Albert Epshteyn

Original Assignee: The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy - Publication type: Grant
Application number: US 13/323,287
Publication date: May 20, 2014



A metron refers to a molecule which contains a pre-defined number of high affinity binding sites for metal ions. Metrons may be used to prepare homogenous populations of nanoparticles each composed of a same, specific number of atoms, wherein each particle has the same size ranging from 2 atoms to about ten nanometers.


The catalytic properties of metals have been shown to vary with particle size. Metallic particles in the 1-5 nm range (essentially bulk metals) are traditionally prepared by reduction methods that produce a size distribution within each batch; meaning that the particle sizes within a population (or batch) can vary greatly. See, e.g., Sophie Carenco, Cedric Boissiere, Lionel Nicole, Clement Sanchez, Pascal Le Floch, and Nicolas Mezailles, “Controlled Design of Size-Tunable Monodisperse Nickel Nanoparticles”, Chem. Mater., 22 (2010) 1340-1349.

A relatively unexplored concept is the study of the properties of metal clusters/nanoparticles as the particles increase in size from a small number of atoms to larger particles that generally have the properties of bulk metallic solids. For example, in the case of gold (Au), bulkier particles of 50 nm and larger are conductive, non-catalytic, and non-toxic, but in the range of 5 to 10 nm the material becomes conductive, and at sizes less than 5 nm become insulating (in the case of Au32), fluorescent, toxic (Au55), and catalytic. Thus, when operating in the size regime of 1 nm and smaller, differences of a single atom may produce significant differences in the properties of each particle. This window or range is from metallic clusters to about 1 nm particles, or 2-100 atoms (for palladium, 50 atoms form a cube 0.9 nm on a side whereas 150 atoms form a 1.3 nm cube) where control of the number of atoms by direct synthesis is difficult yet the size is small enough where one can expect to see substantial chemical differences upon adding or subtracting even one atom. To date, there has been no general tool to prepare macroscopic amounts of small metallic clusters with an arbitrary, pre-selected number of atoms.

Smaller metallic clusters (tens of atoms) are amenable to direct synthesis and have been detected, however with the exceptions of certain “magic-number clusters” they are difficult to prepare in bulk and thus have not been isolated in macroscopic quantities, and accordingly have not been well characterized. See Zhikun Wu, Joseph Suhan, and Rongchao Jin, “One-pot synthesis of atomically monodisperse, thiol-functionalized Au25 nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem., 19 (2009) 622-626.

“Magic-number clusters” refer to certain very particular forms of atomically defined nanoparticles that can be prepared by virtue of their inherent chemistry, such Au25 and Au55 as well as C60 and C70, and can be distinguished from the “atomic metrons” described herein which permit arbitrary design of atomically-defined nanoparticles. With a magic-number cluster, one must accept the atomic composition imposed by nature.

Monodisperse “magic-number cluster” nanoparticles have been prepared and studied in the gas phase. Richard E. Smalley received the Nobel Prize in 1996 for C60 discovered by this procedure, however it is still a very complex procedure to make and requires substantial purification to isolate C60 and C70 from other soot components. For example, M. E. Geusic, M. D. Morse, and R. E. Smalley, “Hydrogen chemisorption on transition metal clusters”, J. Chem. Phys. 82 (1985) 5218-5228. Metal clusters of cobalt and niobium were prepared by bombarding metal surfaces with a laser and expanding the resultant clusters into a vacuum. The clusters were size-selected from the distribution formed and reacted through collisions in the gas phase with hydrogen. The authors showed selective reaction for different sizes, sometimes exhibiting great reactivity differences with only one additional atom. This approach is well known in the art, but you are essentially selecting the clusters one at a time and disposing of the vast number of clusters that do not meet the size criteria. This approach is not very material efficient. The clusters can be landed on a surface and isolated in detectable amounts but not macroscopic amounts by this technique without heroic effort and they do not necessarily retain their original atomic number.



The metron (sometimes called an “atomic metron”) described herein has a particular number of high affinity, (Kd>1010) binding sites, which enable it to bind exactly that number of metal ions. This allows the metron to be used as a tool to select the number of metal atoms that will be included in each separate nanoparticle in a given batch of prepared nanoparticles.

The word “metron” is derived from the Greek noun “μ{acute over (ε)}τρον” referring to a measure (quantity)...

“Metal hydride nanoparticles” US 20120090743 A1

Before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (link to ruling)

Inventors: Albert Epshteyn, Andrew P. Purdy

Original Assignee: The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy - Publication type: Application
Application number: US 12/323,617
Publication date: Apr 19, 2012


A nanoparticle of a decomposition product of a transition metal aluminum hydride compound, a transition metal borohydride compound, or a transition metal gallium hydride compound. A process of: reacting a transition metal salt with an aluminum hydride compound, a borohydride compound, or a gallium hydride compound to produce one or more of the nanoparticles. The reaction occurs in solution while being sonicated at a temperature at which the metal hydride compound decomposes. A process of: reacting a nanoparticle with a compound containing at least two hydroxyl groups to form a coating having multi-dentate metal-alkoxides.


[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/990,004, filed on Nov. 26, 2007. The provisional application and all other publications and patent documents referenced throughout the provisional application and this nonprovisional application are incorporated herein by reference.


[0002] The disclosed materials and methods are generally related to metal and metal-hydride nanoparticles.


[0013] In the following description, for purposes of explanation and not limitation, specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present disclosure. However, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the present subject matter may be practiced in other embodiments that depart from these specific details. In other instances, detailed descriptions of well-known methods and devices are omitted so as to not obscure the present disclosure with unnecessary detail.

[0014] Disclosed is a homogeneous solution-based method used to produce well-defined passivated air and moisture stable transition metal aluminum/boron/gallium hydride nanoparticle materials. The synthesis may be accomplished via a multi-step process. A transition metal salt is reacted with an aluminum hydride compound, a borohydride compound, or a gallium hydride compound. The reaction occurs at a temperature at which the resulting transition metal hydride compound decomposes. For example, ZrCl4 or Zr(BH4)4 may be reacted with LiAlH4 at room temperature. Zr(AlH4)4 is produced, which decomposes at room temperature. The metal hydride compounds can contain hydrogen-bridging bonds, which may break during decomposition. This results in the loss of some, but not necessarily all of the hydrogen in the nanoparticles in the form of hydrogen gas. The use of sonication in solution may cause nucleation of the decomposition products so that nanoparticles are formed.


1. A nanoparticle comprising a decomposition product of a metal hydride compound; wherein the metal hydride compound is a transition metal aluminum hydride compound, a transition metal borohydride compound, or a transition metal gallium hydride compound.

2. The nanoparticle of claim 1, wherein the transition metal is zirconium, hafnium, titanium, vanadium, scandium, yttrium, niobium, chromium, tantalum, thorium, or uranium.

3. The nanoparticle of claim 1, wherein the nanoparticle is made by:
reacting a transition metal salt with an aluminum hydride compound, a borohydride compound, or a gallium hydride compound to produce the metal hydride compound; wherein the reaction occurs in solution while being sonicated at a temperature at which the metal hydride compound decomposes.

4. The nanoparticle of claim 3, wherein the transition metal salt is ZrCl4, Zr(BH4)4, or Hf(BH4)4 and the aluminum hydride compound is LiAlH4.


“Excess enthalpy upon pressurization of nanosized metals with deuterium”


A method for producing excess enthalpy by impregnating metallic precursors on an oxide support that reduces sintering and particle growth; drying the impregnated support at a temperature where the particle growth is minimal; reducing the metallic precursors at a second temperature where the particle growth results in supported metallic particles 2 nm or less in size; and pressurizing the supported metallic particles in the presence of deuterium. The metal particles may comprise palladium, platinum, mixtures thereof, or mixtures of palladium and/or platinum with other elements. Also disclosed is a method for measuring excess enthalpy by placing a test material in a pressure vessel; heating the pressure vessel; evacuating the pressure vessel; introducing deuterium, hydrogen, or both into the pressure vessel; measuring the enthalpy generated during pressurization; again evacuating the pressure vessel; and measuring the enthalpy used during depressurization.


The present application is a non-provisional application that claims the benefit of provisional application Ser. No. 61/246,619 by David A. Kidwell, filed Sep. 29, 2009 entitled “ANOMALOUS HEAT GENERATION FROM DEUTERIUM (OR PLATINUM) LOADED NANOPARTICLES,” the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference.


The present invention relates generally to gas pressurization of metal particles and more specifically to the pressurization in the presence of deuterium of metal nanoparticles 2 nm or less in size in an oxide matrix.


David Kidwell and Cold Fusion

David Kidwell, a keynote speaker at ICCF18, spoke on Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Research at the Naval Research Laboratory.

Biography David A. Kidwell, Ph.D.

Dr. Kidwell received his B.S. in chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 1978, Magna cum laude. He received his Ph.D. in 1982 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in organic chemistry applying mass spectrometry, NMR, and HPLC to the structural analysis of organic biomolecules. After MIT, he received an NRC-NRL Post Doctoral Associateship at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the area of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, applying this technology to the detection of drugs of abuse.

As a member of the Surface Nanoscience and Sensor Technology Section of the Surface Chemistry Branch, Dr. Kidwell developed small, multi-diverse sensor packages for deployment in the environment and field use. More recently, continuing with the theme of trace analysis in diverse matrices, he developed an ICP-MS technique for detection of Pr in Pd at the PPQ levels and tested the theory of transmutation of Cs into Pr by LENR. He has constructed a number of instruments and software packages for the study of heat production in LENR experiments and applied them to the study of gas loading. With precision calorimetry, he found unusual results in gas loading using sub-nanometer palladium particles in zeolites or alumina supports where some of the energy evolved during gas loading could not be explained by conventional chemistry. He has published over 80 technical papers and book chapters, made over 100 presentations on his work, and holds seventeen patents.


Cold Fusion Now Ruby Carat reporting on keynote speech by David Kidwell.

ICCF-18 Day 2: Strong Claims and Rebuttals (July 22, 2013)


He stresses that hard scrutiny of data sets is necessary to trust the results of your measurement, because instrumental artifacts can skew interpretations. He went through several examples of experiments where anomalous measurements were made, seemingly pointing to transmutation effects, but were due to contamination.

Kidwell claimed the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has observed no evidence of nuclear products or transmutations from LENR experiments, but they still believe the phenomenon needs further study.

Kidwell’s doubts about data reported by both Yasuhiro Iwamura and the Martin Flesichmann Memorial Project (MFMP) were soundly countered by Iwamura and Bob Greenyer of MFMP in the question period after the lecture. Still, the point was not lost on the audience: look skeptically at your own data to make it iron-clad. end quote


Yet the Naval Research Laboratories LENR patent from SPAWAR states otherwise. Clearly, as early as 2007, transmutation claims are made by a U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.

The search I made on July 9th, 2013 yielded this, posted July 3rd, 2013 by the U.S Navy SPAWAR Technology Transfer folks.

System and Method for Generating Particles US8419919 B1

Patent Granted - Publication date: Apr 16, 2013 - Filing date: Sep 21, 2007


  • Particles are generated from the application of method. As used herein, the term “generated” is used to refer to the forming of particles through a process involving chemical and, depending upon the substrate, magnetic interaction.
  • Examples of the types of particles generated and detected may include, but are not limited to: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, energetic protons, deuterons, tritons, and neutrons. The particles generated by the implementations of method may have various applications.
  • For example, the generated particles may be captured by other nuclei to create new elements, may be used to remediate nuclear waste, may be used to create strategic materials, or may be used to treat cancerous tumors.
  • As an example there are some sites that have groundwater that is contaminated with radionuclides, such as technetium, Tc-99. The particles emitted by electrochemical cell may be absorbed by the radionuclide, Tc-99 via neutron capture, transmuting it to Tc-100 with a half life of 15.8 seconds to Ru-100, which is stable where the reaction is shown by 99Tc43(n,Îł)100Tc43 and the 100Tc43 β− decays to 100Ru44 with a half-life of 15.8 seconds.


Following citations found in patents is fun and educational, often leading to more questions than answers. What process does an inventor use for choosing a patent to cite? Is it a way of honoring previous work? Why did the examiner cite the patent (grant) by Jonathan Sherman?

PATENT CITATIONS (*Cited by examiner) in the SPAWAR LENR patent


“Report: Toyota Replicates Mitsubishi LENR Transmutation Experiment” December 7, 2012 by Frank Acland

U.S. Naval Research LENR - IEEE Brief

Louis F. DeChiaro wrote a review of current low energy nuclear reactions (LENR aka Cold Fusion) work. DeChiaro has a 23 page presentation.


His background is in Condensed Matter Physics. He discusses the atomic vibrational LENR initiation mechanism.

There is a lengthy list of prerequisite conditions for successful LENR.

“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) Phenomena and Potential Applications” by Louis F. DeChiaro, Ph.D. Physicist, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, September 23, 2015


Louis F. DeChiaro was awarded the Ph.D. Degree in Physics in 1979 from Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. From 1979 to 2002, he served as an Electronics Engineer / researcher in the telecommunications industry at Bell Laboratories and Telcordia Technologies, retiring in 2002 as a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff. From 2002 to 2006, he served as an Associate Professor of Computational Science and a founding member of the new Computational Science Program at The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. He joined the US Navy as a civilian Physicist in September, 2006 and since 2009 been performing investigations in LENR physics and supporting the EMC efforts of Branch Q51 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA. During the period 2010-2012 he was on special assignment at the Naval Research Labs, Washington, D.C. in their experimental LENR group. Dr. DeChiaro is a member of Tau Beta Pi.

LENR Patents Granted Worldwide (slide 21)

DeChiaro Conclusion: The patent door is no longer slammed shut upon inventors, even in USA.

  • “Fluid Heater” Rossi, Andrea 8/25/2015 USA
  • “Nuclide transmutation device... & Method” Mitsubishi 12/4/2014 EU
  • “Enhanced alpha particle emitter” Brown, Cravens, Taylor 8/12/2014 USA
  • “Power units based on dislocation site techniques” (Miley) 12/10/2013 US
  • “Ceramic element” Brown et al. 7/16/2013 USA
  • “System and method for generating particles” JWK / Navy 4/16/2013 USA
  • “Method for producing energy & apparatus therefor” Piantelli et al. 1/16/2013 EU
  • “Method for producing thermal energy” Purratio Ag. 8/15/2012 CN
  • “Pulsed LENR power generators” Energetics 5/4/2011 EU
  • “Power producing device” Kirkinskii et al. 12/23/2009 EU

DeChiaro Sources: “List of Important LENR Patents”and “Contemporary LENR Technology Patents - Popularly Known as Cold Fusion Energy”-end slide 21


Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division: Linkedin

The Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren Laboratory is a premier research and development center that serves as a specialty site for weapon system integration. Our unique ability to rapidly introduce new technology into complex warfighting systems is based on our longstanding competencies in Science and Technology, Research and Development, and Test and Evaluation.

Our capabilities are focused on both the present and future: We are meeting operational needs today, and we are fundamentally reshaping the way our Navy will fight and defend our country in the future.

About Dahlgren Division

NSWCDD’s mission is to provide research, development, test and evaluation, analysis, systems engineering, integration and certification of complex naval warfare systems. Through the years, Dahlgren established itself as the major testing area for naval guns and ammunition. Today, it continues to provide the military with testing and certification by utilizing its Potomac River Test Range in Dahlgren, VA, and provides Fleet support at Combat Direction Systems Activity in Dam Neck, overlooking the Virginia Capes Fleet Operations Area, Virginia Beach, VA.

NSWCDD conducts basic research in all systems-related areas and pursues scientific disciplines including physics, mathematics, laser and computer technology, software, mechanical, electrical and systems engineering, and biotechnology and chemistry.

As a premier naval scientific and engineering institution, Dahlgren technology is critical to new design concepts for current ships and for systems integration and interoperability for the U.S. Navy.