This fellow is quite bright and provides an example of how important nanotechnology is to the field of LENR and solid state nuclear reactors. Direct conversion to electricity from nuclear transmutation is found in his theoretical works since 2008. Fascinating, I hope you enjoy reading up on this and visiting his website at (We are Living in a Centrally Powered and Magnetically Unified) Helical Universe

“Green Nanoenergy Resources in the Age of Nanoscience Technologies” Dec. 27, 2010 Jamal S. Shrair PhD

Abstract

Nanoscience technology is the ability to arrange, control and combine atoms and molecules at the nanoscale. This ability can equip us with the know-how to build electrical, biological and mechanical nano-micromachines that can replace most of today’s manufacturing processes and tools. The impact of nanotechnology on scientific progress, economic and social development is going to be enormous. If we look towards the domain of health care, nanomedicine can reduce existing costs substantially and cure most, if not all, currently incurable diseases. Nanotechnology products that are being developed in a number of industries can have great benefits for space applications and deep space exploration missions. In the energy sector, which is the biggest and the most challenging issue facing us, advances in nanotechnology can solve certain issues successfully; fossil fuels can become cleaner, safer and cheaper to produce, in a more environmentally friendly manner. Renewable resources can become cheaper to produce and easier to implement. In the domain of nuclear energy, Uranium-based reactors would be safer, smaller in size, and more cost effective, while their radioactive byproducts can be recycled. More importantly, nanostructured material and new laser devices can be developed that will allow us to extract nuclear energy without resorting to brute-force methods and radioactive byproducts. Furthermore, as we approach the limits of Moore’s Law, nanotechnology breakthroughs are vital for constructing faster computers that will allow artificial intelligence to develop rapidly. Integrated nano-microsystems would benefit researchers in the field of human biology. A correlation between mind-body connection and other communications external to the body can be found and the field of biological morphogenesis and telepathy would take great leap forward. But, the idea of singularity and that an algorithmically-programmed computer can develop human-like consciousness can be considered as ludicrous. The human brain is not only a neurological machine. Even on the arithmetic level, the processing power of the human brain is unknown. While on the one hand theoreticians are proposing almost anything as having some finite probability of occurring, on the other hand they discard all the principles of physics. Many theoreticians and science fiction writers who claim to be physicists cannot provide mathematical consistency to their theories, not to mention experimental support of any kind. The so-called theory of singularity contradicts all present known laws of nature and the laws of physical reality.

Pg 2 Overview and introduction of important fields in nanoscience technologies

The credit for inspiring nanoscience technology goes to a lecture by Richard Phillips Feynman, at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society in 1959. The first scientist to think about nanoscale manipulation was the Scottish brilliant physicist James Clerk Maxwell who in 1871 imagined extremely tiny “demons″ that could redirect atoms one at a time. Another scientist who became interested in molecular design as early as the 1930’s was Arthur Robert von Hippel, a professor at MIT, called it “Molecular Engineering″. However, Feynman’s famous lecture in 1959 “Plenty of Room at the Bottom″ is now considered as the start of the nanoscience era.

In that lecture Feynman said he wished to talk about a field in which little had been done, but in which an enormous amount could be done in principle. “I want to talk about the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale.″ He described how all the world’s books could fit in a pamphlet. That can be achieved by a simple reproduction of the original pictures, engravings and everything else on a small scale without loss of resolution and he added that you can still get smaller, if you converted all the world’s books into an efficient computer code instead of just reduced pictures, you could store all the information that man has carefully accumulated in all the books of the world… in a cube of material one two-hundredth of an inch wide which is the barest piece of dust that can be made out by the human eye. “So there is plenty of room at the bottom! Don’t tell me about microfilm! The principles of physics as far as I see them, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering thing atom by atom″. In fact, he saw atomic manipulation as something inevitable and a development which cannot be avoided. Feynman proposed that machine tools could make smaller machine tools, and that tools in turn could make even smaller machine tools, and so on, until the tools reach molecular scale dimensions. Such tools, Feynman suggested, might fabricate vast numbers of ultra-small computers, various micro- and nanoscale robots, and even medical machines which could act as miniature surgeons. Feynman’s famous lecture did not make much of headline news in the world of science at the time. That pioneering vision of Feynman had to wait for two decades before researchers and scientists started to be interested in this new field of science.

In 1981, K. Eric Drexler published a paper “Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation” in which he suggested that it might be possible to construct, from biological parts, nanodevices that could inspect even the cells of a human being and carry on repairs within them. However, his following papers that he wrote and tried to publish with scientific journals were dismissed and labeled as pseudoscience. Mainstream scientists and physicians rejected this idea. Physicists claimed that quantum uncertainty and thermal vibration would make molecular machines unworkable. Chemists argued that the bonds between atoms in the envisioned nanorobots would be unduly strained and might easily cause the machines to explode. Biologists also joined the critics of molecular machines, saying that the body would reject foreign material even if it was biological in nature.


Pg 17 Direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity with new nanostructured materials

Based on a number of recent studies conducted by nuclear scientists and technologists, who are studying the advantages of nanostructured nuclear fuel and high-energy superconductors, it has been shown that nanostructured materials open the way for direct nuclear energy conversion.

Those materials can be used as a new class of nuclear fuels as well as energy harvesting blankets that can be used in so many nuclear processes like annihilation, fission and fusion. An advanced nanostructured fuel could be a very important development because if we had a fuel with high temperature resistance, the need for containment would no longer be necessary. The idea for the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity was introduced in the 1940’s by Linder who developed the first thermo-ionic fission device. In the decades that followed, a number of new devices and design concepts have appeared with improved performance, up to the actual concepts of beta-voltaic and liquid-electronics. The most recent direct conversion devices look like heterogeneous super-capacitors.

“They are combinations of nano-structures and actinides assuring both the neutron flux stability, by meeting criticality conditions and the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity.″

The new nano-structured materials can offer the possibility of manufacturing direct energy conversion devices that can reach a very high efficiency in some cases up to 99%, like in the cryogenic versions. However, reaching a very high efficiency internal conversion of the nuclear energy into electricity is not sufficient by itself if it is not followed or accompanied by a high efficiency power extraction system from the reactor core into the outside load. New advances of MEMS devices and nano-microelectronics technologies provide an outstanding opportunity for the production of the electric power harvesting and conversion devices embedded in the fuel.

In his research paper “Nano hetero nuclear fuel structure″ L. Popa-Simil stated that direct energy conversation of nuclear energy requires nano-structured nuclear fuel. The principle of the radiation energy direct conversion is the usage of the knock-on electrons produced by the moving particle interaction with the lattice. These electrons transfer their energy to other electrons, creating a shower of low energy and high current. A structure created of independent nanowires of two different materials insulated in a thin dielectric coating may use energy harvesting devices as electron showers. The dimensions of the conductors are in the range of few tens of nm while the insulators are of several nm, offering a breakdown voltage of few millivolts. When the moving particle interacts with them it generates consistent e-showers. When it reaches the high electron density conductors which are passing through insulators, it stops in the low electron density conductor, polarizing it negatively. These two types of conductor are connected to an external load transferring the accumulated charge. To obtain a higher voltage in a uniform radiation field, bimetal nanobeads insulated together and self organizing have to be created around the radiation source. The advantages consist in transforming the actual nuclear reactors into high power solid-state batteries with no heat exchangers and turbines.

There are other predictable advantages of nano-structured materials like radiation energy harvesting tiles that are free of actinides, using them for harvesting the energy of radioactive sources and controlled nuclear reaction devices. The other important property is a self-repairing and self-organizing structure to compensate the radiation damage and improve the lifespan. The direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity means that the power density of the new material can increase according to some models from 0.2 kW/cm3 to about 1 kW/cm3 . That will result in the reductions of the shield weight and, thus nuclear power source becomes suitable for mobile applications like powering trains and airplanes. What is more important, such a development can lead to the production of high power solid-state compact nuclear batteries for advanced space missions, leading to a new space exploration era.

Pg 33 Solid-State Nuclear Fusion

We all know that palladium (Pd) is an ideal material to study study hydrogen storage kinetics because its bulk hydride properties are well characterized. Pd absorbs hydrogen gas up to 900 times its volume.

Furthermore, recent investigations have shown that the rate of hydrogen trapping inside Pd is even higher in the case of Pd nanoparticles. Hydrogen atoms are strongly trapped and stabilized in the lattice of Pd nanoparticles, compared to bulk Pd. The benefit of studying and modifying the surface of nanoparticle Pd and other large surface area nanoparticles can lead to better understanding of nuclear transmutation reactions in solids heavily loaded with H, D or both. The phenomenon is known as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR).

Pg 36 Based on the history of science, there has always been an immense resistance to accepting a paradigm shift in mainstream science. Nevertheless, there is mounting evidence from this fascinating and emerging area of research that a third route to produce nuclear energy is possible. This route is cheaper and cleaner than the other two. At this time in human history, we are teetering on the brink of the most serious disasters ever to face us in our long history—global warming, pollution (air, sea, land), higher energy costs (rising price of energy), crisis in global food prices, partly caused by the increasing use of crops for energy generation, looming global conflicts among powerful nations as fossil fuels reserves are depleting, a population increase and a lack of energy for economic development in developing countries. These are serious issues threatening global stability and the future of the planet. Thus, the time to invest in and encourage the research of this field is long overdue, but the decision will remain in the hand of the political establishment of the developed world. Summary of the benefits of nanotechnology for nuclear energy:

1. Micro or nano-chemical processing as a nuclear reprocessing technology.

2. High surface area nanoparticles for catalysis or ion-exchange applications.

3. Strengthening the international safeguards system with new detection devices to cover both declared and undeclared activities.

4. Self-cleaning surfaces for decontamination of plants.

5. New nanomaterials and the possibilities of creating direct energy conversion devices capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies up to 99%.

6. Nanostructured/nanocomposite materials for advanced nuclear fuels or as novel wasteforms.

7. “Lab on a chip” diagnostic technologies for on-line process monitoring and control in a wide range of operations.

8. Building powerful laser system and new building materials for ICF plants.

9. Realization of new concepts and new approaches capable of developing alternative fusion energy.

10. Realization of nano scale nuclear power devices such as nano nuclear batteries.

11. An effective and cheap method for recycling nuclear waste.

12. Possibilities of building Nano-Micro-Reactors to produce commercial fusion power.

13. Realization of low temperature nuclear fusion with nanostructured materials.

About the Author

Jamal S. Shrair has a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from Canada’s Queen’s University and a M.Sc. in experimental and particle physics from the Eötvös Loránd University of Science in Budapest, Hungary. His M.Sc. thesis project was an investigation of cosmic muons using a Cherenkov detector. In his post graduate studies he joined the faculty of electrical engineering and informatics at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, where he studied surface physics and electron devices. The title of his thesis project is “The Application of Nanoporous Silicon Layers for Efficient Gas Sensors”.


Email: jamalshrair@yahoo.com, jamal@eet.bme.hu

Also

“Advances in Nanotechnology can Provide Clean Energy Resources and Sustainable Developement” - 2009-08-18 Jamal Shrair, PhD

Also

Jamal Shrair • commented 3 years ago at “Is the Sun causing global warming?”

Hello,

Einstein once wrote that one of the most important unsolved problems in physics centered around Earth’s magnetic field. I sincerely believe I have came up with a theory that not only solves all contradictions in physics but also Earth’s magnetic field. But, mainstream science cannot accept my theory because it will cause large magnitude earthquakes in so many physics theories.

My name is Jamal S. Shrair, I am a physicist and researcher currently living in Budapest, Hungary. I have been working for the last decade on physics theory, which gives an explanation for what I believe to be the real reason behind global climate-change as well as global weather and geological phenomena. I have compiled my research and hypotheses in a book, which I published on the 19 of April 2013 on Amazon.

The book provides a good theory for why earth reverses its magnetic field, what is the source of heat at the earth’s core and a rational explanation for the observable climate-change and geological phenomena which we are experiencing. In the first part of the book I explain the physics background and the reason why our current understanding of climate-change focuses on the “human influence”. I then explain to the reader how the sun is actually travelling through our galaxy on a helical path, which periodically crosses the galactic plane (above and below). Over thousands of years the strength of the sun’ s magnetic field increases as it moves above the galactic plane because the plasma region is denser.

This in turn means an increased number of high energy cosmic particles in the magnetosphere and of course intense solar radiation. One such helical cycle takes the sun thousands of years to complete. As the sun approaches the highest plasma density above the galactic plane - which is also the highest possible point in the galaxy - the solar maximums and minimums begin to take on strange behaviour. Today there is much research to show how the magnetic fields of the Earth and Sun are linked, therefore when solar radiation increases or behaves erratically, so does the radiation on both the surface of the earth and inside.

This variable behaviour of the sun influences the weaker magnetic field of the earth, which is experiencing a rapid shift in polarity at the present time. Compared to recent history, this polarity change has sped up considerably in the 20th century. Currently the magnetic poles are moving faster than at any other time in human history, changing position at almost 40 miles per year! This suggests that we are approaching the end of a polar chron! The rapid movement of the inner core which only recently has been recognized is the reason behind the “stirring” of molten magma in the earth.

This influences the earth’s crust, causing earthquakes, volcanic activity to increase and the release of methane and carbon dioxide greenhouse gases. It is a scientific fact that oceans contain a huge amount of CO2, and when heat escapes from inside the earth and combines with solar radiation from above, they induce heat on the surface and at the inner layers of our planet. That causes the release of vast amounts of methane and carbon dioxide greenhouse gases. Therefore, the main reason for climate change is not “man-made” CO2. No doubt the picture becomes increasingly clear when you follow this logic. There is an abundance of reputable research in the book to support each point and almost daily news of unusually global weather phenomena, beside an amazing increase in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions – often in geographic locations which are not known for these occurrences.

At the same time this is a very sensitive topic, especially since there are so many environmental groups who believe that pollution, global warming and climate-change are all the result of “man-made” CO2. Please also see on the website my publications in low temperature nuclear fusion.

Thank you for your time,

Sincerely yours Jamal S. Shrair

Further relevant reading at WIRED

VOYAGER 1 DISCOVERS BIZARRE AND BAFFLING REGION AT EDGE OF SOLAR SYSTEM 06.27.13.06.27.13 by Adam Mann