As LENR advances, the works of nano and nuclear industry experts lends insight. This demonstrates that all nuclear energetic phenomena fall under the same overarching umbrella; the atom. Astrophysics, hot or low energy fusion or fission, transmutation and isotope production, mono-atomic and nano behavior; certainly all atomic nuclear reactive and energetic phenomena are related and share commonalities.
The Rossi E-Cat QuarkX presentation and recent Global Energy Corporation claims give pause and reason to review the works of Liviu Popa Simil, an advanced nano nuclear physicist. I consider his company, LAVM LLC, Los Alamos, N.M. as another important one to follow during the race to LENR commercialization.
Understanding of nano physics has deepened our comprehension of the LENR nuclear reactive environment, as it is also revolutionizing our understanding of present nuclear power technologies utilized today. Liviu Popa Simil is a nuclear fission power nanophysicist and engineer. His works are important to the field of LENR, not only to fission and fusion engineering.
Study his LENR patents and read his works in the fission/fusion industry. You enter into an exciting new world of nano nuclear energy physics, which strengthens our understanding of the sub-atomic, the atom and the nano throughout the fission, fusion and low energy nuclear reaction environs.
ed note - A 2008 ‘New Scientist’ news article, “Nanomaterial Turns Radiation Directly Into Electricity” By Phil McKenna
“Method and Device for Direct Nuclear Energy Conversion in Electricity in Fusion and Transmutation Processes” US20130121449A1 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20130121449A1
A method and device to generate electric energy on demand by fusion or transmutation nuclear reactions produced inside a super-capacitor that uses inter-atomic field’s particularities obtained inside nano-structures, by using temperature, density and electric fields in order to modify nuclear entanglement and quantum non-localities particularities in order to control nuclear reaction rate of an inserted material, called nuclear fuel, facilitated by the nano-structure nuclear composition, called burner, that controls the non-local nuclear reaction.
Fusion or transmutation generated nuclear particles’ energy is converted using a super-capacitor made of a micro-nano-hetero structure meta-material that loads from the nuclear energy and discharges by electric current.
The device contains the nuclear burner module that produces the nuclear particles surrounded by the direct nuclear energy conversion into electricity super-capacitor modules comprising several functional sub-modules, and the utilities that provide the nuclear fuel and byproducts management and process control systems.
“Nano-structured nuclear radiation shielding” https://www.google.com/patents/US8067758
“Pseudo-capacitor structure for direct nuclear energy conversion” https://www.google.com/patents/US20100061503A1
“Method of using micro-nano-hetro structures to make radiation detection systems and devices with applications” US 20120082283 A1 - Publication: 2012 https://www.google.com/patents/US20120082283A1
 The development of the nuclear energy brings the need for better radiation detection and control. The application of the method of controlling the radiation brings significant advantages in using the same hetro-structures in detecting and controlling various types of radiation. The non-proliferation and safe guards applications require better faster and more sensitive measuring equipments in order to assure the peaceful applications of nuclear power.
 FIG. 1A shows an exemplary plot of fission yield as a function of mass number for fission of 235U, 238Np, 239Pu, 242mAm, 245Cm, 249Cf. The horizontal axis represents the mass number of fission products, while the vertical axis indicates the abundance of the fission products. Typically, a thermal neutron with energy of 0.253 eV collides with a uranium-235 nucleus. Then, the compound uranium-236 nucleus splits in two median mass nuclei and typically releases 2 to 3 neutrons as well as energy. When a fast neutron collides a 235U it induces fission or spallation and the resultant products distribution modifies a little bit showing a “spallation tail”. The process releases more than too neutrons, up to 10 fast neutrons for the fast neutron fission and up to 50 neutrons for spallation. Fast protons, muons, also induce spallation. The released energy may total to around 203 MeV per disintegration: the kinetic energies of 167 MeV and 8 MeV of the fission products and neutrons, respectively, and prompt gamma emission energy of 8 MeV. If the incident particles neutron or charged particle brings more energy the total released energy is higher because of conservation laws applied in the process kinematics and dynamics. As depicted in FIG. 1, the fission yield curve 10 in semi-logarithmic scale shows that the distribution of fission product abundance is symmetrical with respect to the median mass. Some of the most probable fission products are 90-Rubidium and 143-Cesium, and there are about 20 pairs of fission products that have mass numbers and yields close to the Ru—Ce pair. It is noted that the curve in FIG. 1 corresponds to the thermal neutron fission of 235U and not for other fissile materials like 239-Plutonium, 233-Uranium, 241-Americium, 252-Californium and other neutron energy. If a fast n is driving the reaction the fission curve looks different as showed by 12. When a charged particle hits the 235U it may open the fission or spallation channel. The fission curve looks like 12 being slightly modified according to the momentary reaction parameters, and the spallation adds a “tail” 11 to the fission curve, showing heavier nuclei that lost their neutrons.
 FIG. 1B shows in more detail the fission products probability distribution released by 239-Plutonium fission on a linear scale. It shows that the relative measurement error is about 1%, and the maximal probability of occurrence has the isotope with mass 135 amu (atomic mass units). The main distribution curve 13 with the error bars16 of about +/−1% are bordered by the lower 14 and upper 15envelope curves limiting the likelihood of the occurrence of a certain isotope as a result of 239Pu fission. The number of released neutrons that could be interpreted on a gausian depending on the incident energy of the incoming neutron is determining the complementary curve of the probability distribution of the lower mass isotope, centered on the half mass 120 amu of the reaction.
 FIG. 1C shows another detail of the fission reaction, with respect to the average kinetic energy of the (nthermal, fission) reaction written short (nth,f) applied to 235U and 239Pu, the most frequent used elements in the present nuclear applications. The total fission products energy in the process is of about 167 MeV, shared according to the impulse and energy conservation rules by the two fission products from which we represented the higher mass for 235U by curve 17 and of 239Pu by curve 18.
 FIG. 2A shows a plot of fission cross section σf versus incident neutron energy for various fertile actinide isotope used in nuclear detector like238U, 232Th, 240Pu and 242Pu. As depicted 210, the fission cross section has different shapes specific to each isotope. The aspect and behavior of these isotopes used in n measurement devices by fission as an intermediary process has the advantage in being possible to give an indication of the neutron spectrum in a multi-group format with up to 16 energy domains if using only the fission rate information provided by using the 4 isotopes in the FIG. 210.
 FIG. 2B shows a another diagram of the neutron yield of fission of the isotopes 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U and 239Pu the most used in the actual nuclear energy for each incident neutron absorbed as a function of incident neutron energy. As depicted in the chart 220, the incident neutron energy is varying in a larger interval with 9 orders of magnitude. Using all the isotopes presented up to now in charts 210and 220 there is possible to detect the neutron flux and its spectrum with up to about 50 energy sub-groups.
 FIG. 2C shows as an example a neutron spectrum for a pulsed neutron generator using fissile materials. The chart 230 shows the component of fast neutrons with an average energy of 2 MeV and its thermal component, as an example of what the materials presented above may be used to detect.
 Another example of a more complicated spectrum is depicted in FIG. 2D, for the case of spallation reactions, using high energy neutrons. The chart 240 shows the coexistence of several particles and their spectral distribution, in a more complex radiation environment that requires an accurate detection in real time with portable instrumentation. In the chart 240 the energy distribution of several particles as neutrons, protons, pions, deuterons and gamma photons is shown.
 FIG. 2E shows an enlarged schematic diagram of several materials of potential interest of being used in the detection process. They do not produce fission particles but selectively absorbs the neutron flux allowing an increase of the multi-group number and accuracy a spectrum is depicted. The chart 250 shows the total cross section in barns of several materials in logarithmic scale. The ordinate shows only the domain limits of σt for each material, without showing scale proportionality among the materials, because the intent was to show the differences among them with respect to incident neutron energy shown on abscise. The materials are 6Li, that shows a good thermal and epithermal cross section, 27Al that exhibits a low cross section with the exception of several nuclear resonance in hard neutron spectral domain, and certainly recommending it for structural material. Other isotopes are 53Mn, 197Au, 208Pb, 241Am each being different.
 FIG. 2F shows the spectrum of proton induced fission in 233U and238U as a function of incident proton energy. The chart 260 is important in spallation targets and accelerator driven transmutation systems. It also shows a low and uniform sensitivity of proton energy making this process small in the presence of neutrons.
 FIG. 2G shows the fission cross section variation in hard neutron spectrum for 10 materials of interest that are natW, 209Bi, natPb, 232Th,233U, 237Np, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 243Am. Each of them exhibit different fission cross sections versus incident neutron energy. The chart 270also shows the possibility of differentiating in the high energy of neutrons using non-actinide materials as Pb, W, etc. This shows the possibility of having more than 100 sub-groups in the multi-group neutron energy measurement device.
 FIG. 2H shows the usage of other materials in (n,γ) processes to characterize the neutron spectrum. These materials may be used as removable absorbers in the measurement in order to better characterize the neutron spectrum. The chart 280 shows the usage of27Al for ultra-hard neutrons, 115In for fast, fission just-released neutrons, 98Mo for hard, sub-fission neutrons on a broad domain down to epithermal energies, 197Au, 75As, 187Re, 59Co for thermal and epithermal neutron energies.
 FIG. 2H shows a combined chart 190 where three main neutron fluxes—inside the irradiation channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) 291, an Epithermal flux 292 inside a Fast Breeder Reactor, Na cooled (FBR) and fission neutron energy spectrum 293 are put together on the same chart with the fission cross sections of the main elements used as detectors like 239Pu 235 U 294, and 238 U are presented. The reaction rate is simply the product of the specific flux with specific material cross section and its specific Loschmidt number.
 The figure also illustrates some terminology aspects, and some kinematics aspects of the nuclear reactions, as basis of the future developments.
 According to the main embodiment, a method to design nuclear detectors assembly for nuclear applications that includes: multiple elemental modules customized on/for a moving entity taking part in the nuclear reaction as fission products, decay products, knock-on electrons and recoils, made of three components with generic function as generator; insulator and absorber and their interfaces, dimensioned for each moving entity by calculating the effective lengths of each component. The moving entity specific modules are used one into another or separately driving to the design of a large variety of nuclear materials for better handling nuclear reactions as fission, fusion, decay and transmutation. The method applied to fission products drives to the design of a neutron and hard gamma detector, using fission products end of range thermal spike discharged in a scintillator or electro-sensitive material. The scintillator may be fluid in a smooth flow around the fissionable beads draining the fission products and their effects along to a detection or damage recovery unit.
 According to another embodiment, the method is applied to knock-on electrons produced from stopping the moving entities drives to the design of a device for converting fission energy into electrical energy that includes: a detector layer for generating fission products by fission reactions; one or more CIci layer units stacked on the detector layer, each CIci layer unit including a first conductive layer “C”, a first insulating layer “I”, a lower than the first conductive layer electron density layer “c”, and a second insulating layer “i”; and an electrical circuit coupled to the conductive layers and operative to harvest electrical energy. The fission products or other moving particles generate electron showers in the first layer that may contain nuclear detector also while the low electron density layer absorbs the electron showers.
 According to yet another embodiment, the method is applied to knock-on electrons produced from stopping the moving entities drives to the design of a tile for converting particle and radiation energy into electrical energy includes: a first layer including one or more CIci layer units, each CIci layer unit including a first component, a conductive layer with high electron density among available conductive materials “C”, a first insulating layer “I”, a lower electron density than the first component, layer “c”, and a second insulating layer “i”, the first layer being operative to absorb a first portion of particles and radiations moving toward the surface thereof and to convert the energy of the first portion into electrical energy; a second layer formed over the first layer and including one or more CIci layer units and being operative to absorb a second portion of particles and radiations that have passed through the first layer and to convert the second portion into electrical energy; and a third layer formed over the second layer and including one or more “CIci” layer units and operative to capture neutrons that have passed through the first and second layers and to convert the energy of neutrons into electrical energy.
 According to still another embodiment, the method is applied to knock-on electrons produced from stopping the moving entities drives to the design of a device for converting fusion energy into electrical energy includes: a chamber having a wall comprised of at least one “CIci” layer unit, the CIci layer unit including a high electron density layer among the available conductive materials “C”, a first insulating layer “I”, a lower than the first conductor electron density layer “c”, and a second insulating layer “i”, the wall having at least two holes facing each other. The wall absorbs fusion products generated by the fusion reactions and converts the energy of fusion products into electrical energy, simultaneously measuring it.
 According to a further embodiment, the method is applied to nuclei recoils produced from absorbing the moving entities drives to the design of a nuclear pellet includes: a generally cylindrical cladding layer; a metal grid covering a first transverse cross section of the cladding layer; a lower support covering a second transverse cross section of the cladding layer; and nuclear detector grains filling a space bounded by the cladding layer, metal grid and lower support and capable of generating transmutation reactions. The liquid flows through the cladding layer and thereby washes the grains and carries recoils generated by the transmutation reactions to an analyzer/separator unit that may deliver information on the radiation field inside by analyzing the transmutation products signatures.
 The three main processes may use a plurality of materials and configurations to create process customized detector arrays to characterize the radiation fields directly in real time by analyzing instantaneous response of the sensors or by accumulation and sampling analyzes at different time intervals in remote specialized units.
 The detectors may be made as complex systems integrating a continuous flow multi-material, multi-sensor scintillation detector with. Direct Energy Conversion Matrix plate detectors, and nano-structured direct extraction detector units. This represents an advance in Particle Detector Technology—with emphasis to Nuclear physics detecting and analyzing charged particles, neutrons, and energetic neutral atoms providing information on their initial charge (ionization level), energy, mass and direction and incidence position for each particle.
 Direct Energy Conversion Matrix plate is a solid state device, looking like a CCD plate, but containing electronics embedded into a nano-hetero-structure that directly harvests the kinetic energy of the particle and converts it in electric charge with high efficiency. The interaction parameters provided simultaneously by the plate represents an important advantage for complex radiation characterization.
 There are the following parameters that are measured:
 time (event mode detection) (t)
 position of incidence (x,y,at detector surface)
 initial charge (I)
 range (R)
 ionization power deposition along range I(x;y;z) (20-2000 values)
 inside direction (x,y,range=0)-(x,y,R)
 and by calculations
 particle mass (m)
 particle’s kinetic energy (K)
 particle’s refined direction (0, cp)  particle possible decay (mainly, beta, alpha) for short decay halving times<1s (measured as a sudden energy generation at R, after a time delay). In this way it detects n and X, Gamma interactions. The data processing will separate the type of interaction. Loading the structure with specific high cross-section materials may modify the detector’s sensitivities. The advanced structures may be able to track n, gamma, X depending on detector’s parameters.
RELEVANT rel·e·vant - ˈreləvənt/ - adjective
- closely connected or appropriate to what is being done or considered. “What small companies need is relevant advice.”
- synonyms: pertinent, applicable, apposite, material, apropos, to the point, germane/appropriate to the current time, period, or circumstances
- of contemporary interest. As in... “Critics may find themselves unable to stay relevant in a changing world.”
Early 16th century (as a Scots legal term meaning ‘legally pertinent’): from medieval Latin relevant-‘raising up,’ from Latin relevare .
Latin for: relevo, relevare, relevavi, relevatus - Definitions: ease/refresh, exonerate, lift (eyes), raise, relieve/alleviate/diminish/lighten
Liviu Popa Simil presented the following paper and slide show at IICCF-17 2012, The 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Daejeon, Korea. Also submitted at ILENRS-‘12 Williamsburg, USA, July 1-3, 2012 Paper 1-4.
“Roadmap to Fusion Battery A Novel Type of Nuclear Battery and Potential Outcomes and Applications” Liviu Popa-Simil LAVM LLC, Los Alamos, NM http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/PopaSimilLroadmaptof.pdf
Note this from 2015
“Direct Energy Conversion Radioisotopes Based Battery” http://anstd.ans.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/5039_Popa-Simil.pdf
He also authored the following:
“Advanced Nano-Nuclear Program Proposal” – LAVM LLC, Los Alamos https://cybercemetery.unt.edu/archive/brc/20120621131512/http://brc.gov/sites/default/files/comments/attachments/adnucp.pdf
Another important paper to study is the:
2017 Best Paper Award - Science, Education and Technology Platform http://sciedtech.eu/ Posted on 27th January 2018 By FICAI editor Anton http://sciedtech.eu/2018/01/27/best-paper-award-2017-adv-nano-energy/
“This is my great pleasure to announce that the Best Paper Award – 2017 was decided. The jury decided to award... Liviu Popa-Simil”
“Accelerator Enabled Nano-Nuclear Materials Development; Advanced NanoMaterials and Technologies for Energy Sector” http://sciedtech.eu/download/liviu-popa-simil-accelerator-enabled-nano-nuclear-materials-development-advanced-nanomaterials-and-technologies-for-energy-sector-201711-1-12/?wpdmdl=1157
Nuclear renaissance isn’t possible without the development of new nano-hetero-structured materials. A novel micro-hetero structure, entitled “cer-liq-mesh”, nuclear fuel that self-separates the fission products from nuclear fuel, makes fuel reprocessing easier, allowing near-perfect burnup by easy fast recladding, being prone to improve the nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel heating analysis led to development of new direct energy conversion nano-hetero structured meta-materials resembling a super-capacitor loading from nuclear particles’ energy and discharging as electricity, prone to remove 90% of the actual nuclear power plant hardware, increasing the energy conversion efficiency.
Usage of ion beam recoil analysis is used to measure and prove the nano-grains’ and nano-clusters’ special properties, such as shape-enhanced impurity diffusion and self-repairing in cluster structured fractal materials. The nanograin liquid interface is studied by ion beam simulation in order to develop a new generation of nuclear fuels with enhanced breeding and transmutation properties, able to directly separate the transmutation products, thus reducing the need for hard, hazardous chemical processes.
Ion-beam channeling in material may be extended to neutrons and gamma rays, and using hybrid NEMS structures new applications may create novel solid-state nuclear reactor control reactivity system, radiation modulators for gamma, neutrino communication systems and ultra-light radiation shielding.
ed summary - These patents and papers of Liviu Popa Simil lend insight to LENR hybrid fission/fusion reactors, transmutation of radioactive elements as fuel, medical isotope production, and the direct conversion of low energy nuclear reaction particles to electricity. His use of nano structures as waveguides, super-mirrors (lightweight active radiation shielding), and as particle accelerator is of particular interest. -gbgoble
Please note his ‘2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award’
Marquis Who’s Who Press Release LOS ALAMOS, NM, January 22, 2018. Marquis Who’s Who, the world’s premier publisher of biographical profiles, is proud to present Liviu Popa-Simil, PhD, with the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award.
“An accomplished listee, Dr. Popa-Simil celebrates many years’ experience in his professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes he has accrued in his field.”
Nuclear engineer and researcher Dr. Popa-Simil has built a reputation for excellence over the course of a decades long career. After graduating from the Nuclear Engineering Faculty in Bucharest, Romania, specialized in Fast Breeder Reactors Physics and Engineering, and with dissertation work in Laser-Plasma Jet Nuclear Materials enrichments, he has a broad engineering and computing background.
Initially a test pilot engineer in the prototype division of the Institute for Automotive R&D in Romania, he introduced cutting edge technologies in industry, as robotics, material characterization using nuclear methods, interferential holography, sound and vibration based measurements, automotive and navigation electronics, etc., and took part in the study of various singular and abnormal phenomena. He rapidly advanced through his field, serving as an engineer-physicist, project coordinator and senior researcher for IFIN-HH (Nuclear Physics and Engineering Institute - Horia Hulubei), Accelerator and Nuclear Physics Application Division where he developed nuclear methods and applications in industry and environment, and initiated novel nuclear fuel research and pulsed power applications. He then served as Technical Director of Electron Trading, where he was involved in modernizing process control and automation in the processing industry.
Since 2002, he has worked for Los Alamos National Laboratory, developing Real Time Radiography methods, and then, developed advanced nuclear fuel cycle as part of AFCI program.
He is currently president of LAVM LLC, a private company developing nano-nuclear materials and THz applications as well as security systems, and the Executive Director of LAAS - Los Alamos Academy of Sciences, which strives to serve the public good by promoting science and innovation.
To share his knowledge with his peers, Dr. Popa-Simil authored books on Kindle e-Book and iTunes on nano-nuclear materials, strategic space applications, climate change, transportation, supercomputers, etc., and he has filed patents on resistive spot welding, nuclear materials, THz imaging, ballistics, medical devices, etc. He has also contributed more than 300 peer-reviewed articles to professional journals, wrote chapters for several books on novel nuclear materials, super-computers, etc. and speaks at approximately three to four conferences per year. He gave more than 500 talks, several keynote speeches, many invited talks, and hundreds of seminaries and presentations.
Furthermore, Dr. Popa-Simil maintains affiliations with professional organizations including the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, the Materials Research Society, the American Nuclear Society (Life Member), NACE International, IEEE (Senior Member) and PMI (Certified PMP).
He holds a PhD from the Institute of Atomic Physics in Bucharest and a Nuclear Engineer-Physicist diploma in engineering physics from the
University of Bucharest.
Dr. Popa-Simil’s hard work and dedication have not gone unnoticed. He placed first in the Physics National Olympics in 1975, was awarded the distinction for exemplary military service in 1976, placed third in the Inventions Contest in 1986, was featured in one volume each of Who’s Who in Finance and Industry, Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, and Who’s Who in the World, and received the Romanian Prize for Excellence in Science in 2011.
When Dr. Popa-Simil has free time, his hobbies include martial arts, swimming, hiking, and robotics.
In recognition of outstanding contributions to his profession and the Marquis Who’s Who community, Liviu Popa-Simil, PhD, has been featured on the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement website.
As in all Marquis Who’s Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.
Please visit www.ltachievers.com for more information about this honor.
Further Reading of Interest in the Field
Uploaded by Slayher Doff on Apr 01, 2013
Fuels Battery - Radioactive Decay - Electron - Electricity Generation
Micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in air bags, wrist-warn GPS receivers, and matchbox size digital cameras to more recent optical applications.
Depending on the application, these devices often require an on board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring for an extended period of time. In the quest to boost micro scale power generation several groups have turn their efforts to well known enable sources, namely hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels such as propane, methane, gasoline and diesel.
Some groups are developing micro fuel cells than, like their micro scale counter parts, consume hydrogen to produce electricity. Others are developing on-chip combustion engines, which actually burn a fuel like gasoline to drive a minuscule electric generator. But all these approaches have some difficulties regarding low energy densities, elimination of by products, down scaling and recharging. All these difficulties can be overcome up to a large extend by the use of nuclear micro batteries.
Radioisotope thermo electric generators (RTGs) exploited the extraordinary potential of radioactive materials for generating electricity. RTGs are particularly used for generating electricity in space missions. It uses a process known as See-beck effect. The problem with RTGs is that RTGs don’t scale down well. So the scientists had to find some other ways of converting nuclear energy into electric energy. They have succeeded by developing nuclear batteries.
Nuclear batteries use the incredible amount of energy released naturally by tiny bits of radio active material without any fission or fusion taking place inside the battery. These devices use thin radioactive films that pack in energy at densities thousands of times greater than those of lithium-ion batteries. Because of the high energy density nuclear batteries are extremely small in size. Considering the small size and shape of the battery the scientists who developed that battery fancifully call it as “DAINTIEST DYNAMO”. The word ‘dainty’ means pretty.
Types of nuclear batteries
Scientists have developed two types of micro nuclear batteries. One is junction type battery and the other is self-reciprocating cantilever. The operations of both are explained below one by one.
1. JUNCTION TYPE BATTERY
The kind of nuclear batteries directly converts the high-energy particles emitted by a radioactive source into an electric current. The device consists of a small quantity of Ni-63 placed near an ordinary silicon p-n junction - a diode, basically.
As the Ni-63 decays it emits beta particles, which are high-energy electrons that spontaneously fly out of the radioisotope’s unstable nucleus. The emitted beta particles ionized the diode’s atoms, exciting unpaired electrons and holes that are separated at the vicinity of the p-n interface. These separated electrons and holes streamed away form the junction, producing current.
It has been found that beta particles with energies below 250KeV do not cause substantial damage in Si  . The maximum and average energies (66.9KeV and 17.4KeV respectively) of the beta particles emitted by Ni-63 are well below the threshold energy, where damage is observing silicon. The long half-life period (100 years) makes Ni-63 very attractive for remote long life applications such as power of spacecraft instrumentation. In addition, the emitted beta particles of Ni-63 travel a maximum of 21 micrometer in silicon before disintegrating; if the particles were more energetic they would travel longer distances, thus escaping. These entire things make Ni-63 ideally suitable in nuclear batteries.
Since it is not easy to micro fabricate solid radioactive materials, a liquid source is used instead for the micro machined p-n junction battery. The diagram of a micro machined p-n junction is shown below
As shown in figure a number of bulk-etched channels have been Micro machined in this p-n junction. Compared with planar p-n Junctions, the three dimensional structure of our device allows for a substantial increase of the junction area and the macro machined channels can be used to store the liquid source. The concerned p-n junction has 13 micro machine channels and the total junction area is 15.894 sq.mm (about 55.82% more than the planar p-n junction). This is very important since the current generated by the powered p-n junction is proportional to the junction area.
In order to measure the performance of the 3-dimensional p-n junction in the presence of a radioactive source, a pipette is used to place 8 l of liquid Ni-63 inside the channels micro machined on top of the p-n junction. It is then covered with a black box to shield it from the light. The electric circuit used for these experiments is shown below.
2. SELF-RECIPROCATING CANTILEVER
This concept involves a more direct use of the charged particles produced by the decay of the radioactive source: the creation of a resonator by inducing movement due to attraction or repulsion resulting from the collection of charged particles. As the charge is collected, the deflection of a cantilever beam increases until it contacts a grounded element, thus discharging the beam and causing it to return to its original position. This process will repeat as long as the source is active. This has been tested experimentally. The following figure shows the experimental setup.
The self-reciprocating cantilever consists of a radioactive source of thickness very small and of area 4square mm. above this thin film there is a cantilever beam. It is made of a rectangular piece of silicon. Its free end is able to move up and down. On this cantilever beam there is a copper sheet attached to it. Also above this cantilever there is a piezoelectric plate. So the self-reciprocating cantilever type nuclear batteries are also called as radioactive piezoelectric generator.
First the beta particles, which are high-energy electrons, fly spontaneously from the radioactive source. These electrons get collected on the copper sheet. Copper sheet becomes negatively charged. Thus an electrostatic force of attraction is established between the silicon cantilever and radioactive source. Due to this force the cantilever bends down.
The piece of piezoelectric material bonded to the top of the silicon cantilever bends along with it. The mechanical stresses of the bend unbalances the charge distribution inside the piezoelectric crystal structure, producing a voltage in electrodes attached to the top and bottom of the crystal.
After a brief period – whose length depends on the shape and material of the cantilever and the initial size of the gap- the cantilever come close enough to the source to discharge the accumulated electrons by direct contact. The discharge can also take place through tunneling or gas breakdown. At that moment, electrons flow back to the source, and the electrostatic attractive force vanishes. The cantilever then springs back and oscillates like a diving board after a diver jumps, and the recurring mechanical deformation of the piezoelectric plate produces a series of electric pulses.
Also found here:
2012-2013 A Seminar Roport on NUCLEAR BATTERY
Nuclear batteries harvest energy from radioactive specks and supply power to micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). This paper describes the viability of nuclear batteries for powering realistic MEMS devices. Nuclear batteries are not nuclear reactors in miniatures, but the energy comes from high-energy particles spontaneously emitted by radioactive elements. Isotopes currently being used include alpha and low energy beta emitters. Gamma emitters have not been considered because they would require a substantial amount of shielding. The sources are available in both soil and liquid form. Nuclear batteries use the incredible amount of energy released naturally by tiny bits of radioactive material without any fission or fusion taking place inside the battery. These devices use thin radioactive films that pack in energy at densities thousands of times greater than those of lithium-ion batteries. Because of the high energy density nuclear batteries are extremely small in size. Considering the small size and shape of the battery the scientists who developed that battery fancifully call it as “DAINTIEST DYNAMO”. The word ‘dainty’ means pretty.
About Propertius - The title artwork and quotation
Sextus Propertius, (born 55–43 bce, Assisi, Umbria [Italy]—died after 16 bce, Rome), greatest elegiac poet of ancient Rome. The first of his four books of elegies, published in 29 bce, is called Cynthia after its heroine (his mistress, whose real name was Hostia); it gained him entry into the literary circle centering on Maecenas.
His Prologue poem, addressed to Tullus
Cynthia was the first. She caught me with her eyes, a fool
who had never before been touched by desires.
I really hung my head in shame
when Love pressed down on it with his feet.
He taught me to hate chaste girls!
He was cruel when he told me to live without plan.
It’s already been a whole year that the frenzy hasn’t stopped.
Even now, the gods are against me.
Milanion wasn’t afraid of anything, Tullus,
when he crushed hard Atalanta’s savagery.
He wandered mad in Parthenian caves,
face to face with hairy beasts.
Another time, shocked by a wound from Hylaeus’
stick, he groaned loudly on the Arcadian cliffs.
That’s how he was able to dominate that brilliant girl:
in love, you’ve got to pray a lot and do a lot.
But in me Love is slow, does not stimulate any art,
and he forgets to go on ways he used to know
You who do that trick with the moon,
who perform rites on magic altars,
change my mistress’ mind,
make her face more pale than my own!
Then I’ll believe in you, that you can lead stars
and Medea’s streams from their paths with songs.
But you, who called me too late as I was slipping, friends,
get help for the insane.
Bravely will I endure knife and savage fires,
just let me say whatever I want in my rage.
Take me to exotic peoples, across the waves,
where no woman may know my path.
You stay, to whom the god has easily consented,
stay equal always, throughout your love.
On me old Venus works bitter nights,
and Love is at no time absent.
Don’t do what I do, I’m warning you. Keep to yourself,
don’t move from an accustomed love.
Because if anyone should turn slow ears to my warnings,
you’ll see how they’ll come back to haunt him!