Pd and Rh as found in the LENR nuclear reactive environment is satisfyingly exciting. One of the latest in this game is Reginald B. Little, a famous scientist in his own right. Dr. Reginald B. Little has been thinking about cold fusion for quite some time, his patent was filed in 2006. I’m adding it to the patent list.
Dr. Little mentions LENR when he peer reviewed a recent book titled
“Some Problems of Nuclear Energy Development in Asia: A Survey of
Literature” by Victor Christianto, January 22, 2013.
A very excellent, grand and important assessment of coming world energy need during the 21st century with risk and forseeable consequences and the need for non-fission energy generators for the future. LENR is mentioned briefly and lastly, but “the last shall be first.” This consideration by Christianto is extremely important for stalling and correcting environmental effects of the global warming. - Dr. Reginald B. Little
It’s also interesting to see that Dr. Little has been in correspondence with
Giuliano Bettini in regards to his article posted at the E-Cat blog “Journal of
Nuclear Physics”. “How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?”
I found this in page 1 of the comments in the article (the links to Dr Little’s papers and the quotes from his abstracts and introduction have been added to the correspondence by me).
Giuliano Bettini, April 4th, 2011, “I’ve received an e mail from Dr. R. Little. Here’s the e mail and the answer.”
Dear Dr. Little
Thank you very much for your e mail.
You see, I’ve invented this concept of “masked proton” only in order to explain in a simple way the proton capture by Nickel.
Unfortunately I am only a Radar Engineer (as I said to ing. Rossi “I AM NOT PROFESSOR”) but it seems to me very interesting the “reverse beta process” you are speaking about. It seems to me that they are looking for this, to explain the proton capture in LENR.
Why you don’t post a paper in Journal of Nuclear Physics?
—– Original Message —–
From: “Reginald Little” To: Giuliano Bettini Cc: “Reginald Little”
Sent: Monday, April 04, 2011
Subject: Prior Model
I write in regards to your recent publication: “How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper.”
I would like to note my prior model for forming the masked proton for proton capture in: “Magnetocatalytic adiabatic spin torque orbital transformations for novel chemical and catalytic reaction dynamics: The Little Effect” 2 Aug 2006
In this manuscript the theory and phenomena associated with the Little Effect are introduced as the spin induced orbital dynamics of confined fermions under strong magnetic and thermal environments. This Little Effect is considered in details for the electron transfer reactions associated with redox processes of Cu-Ag alloy within deionized water and for the orbital dynamics during the iron catalyzed covalent bond rearrangements associated with amorphous carbon conversion to diamond.
Furthermore, prolong extreme conditions of 74,000 amps, 403 V, strong Lorentz compression, and thermal stresses upon this Cu-Ag- H2O system on the basis of the Little Effect of high spin, thermally induced orbital dynamics are predicted and demonstrated to cause the magnetically organized reverse beta, electron capture, proton capture and neutron capture processes for various infrequent pycnonuclear transmutations within the Cu-Ag coil. The general experimental verification and the broad implications of this Little Effect on chemistry are demonstrated within these two ideal systems: an ionic case and a molecular case. The Little Effect is contrasted with the Hedvall Effect as a dynamical phenomenon causing the kinematics of the Hedvall Effect. The compatibility of the Little Effect with the Woodward-Hoffmann Rule is demonstrated. The Little Effect provides greater understanding of order in systems far from equilibrium.
The implications of the Little Effect for other interesting phenomena such as ferromagnetism, unconventional magnetism, superparamagnetism, superconductivity, and pycnonuclear effects are concluded.
Strong dense many-spin interactions have been proposed to organize novel orbital dynamics (the Little Effect) for novel chemical and catalytic phenomena. The recent determinations of the relativistic and quantum Hall effects of carriers in graphene under strong magnetic confinement have substantiated the Little Effect. Moreover such nonclassical phenomena under the stronger magnetic confinement of ferro-nanocatalysts are here shown to organize reverse beta processes and possibly pycnonuclear reactions under high temperature and high-pressure conditions. Such processes have implications for reverse beta reactions and nuclear reactions within the earth’s interior and new technologies for carbon nanotube-ferrometal and nanographene-ferrometal composites.
From the Introduction
Some have reasoned that the earth is not internally heated but simply hot from the time of its formation by the insulation due to the surrounding mantle silicates . Other theories of internal heating by chemical origins have been suggested on the basis of heats of solution and dissolution under gravitational driven buoyancy dynamics within the molten outer core that is sandwiched between the rotating solid inner core and rotating solid mantle . On the basis of these various studies it is thought that the earth’s core is mostly iron with various possible impurities.
Some investigators have proposed slow terrestrial fusion as a possible source of heating within the earth’s interior [21,22]. Other investigators have reasoned that radioactivity decay of some heavy elements contributes to heating the earth’s interior. Recently, the enhanced reverse beta processes and neutron activated elemental transmutations were discovered  during magnetized, high temperature, high current and conductive activation of some metal hydrides by many body correlated spin interactions (the Little Effect). Here it is discovered and demonstrated that ferromagnetic metal-graphene hydrides nanocomposites also provide a natural strong magnetically correlated environment for such discovered accelerated reverse beta processes of internal electrons and protons and the consequent neutron catalyzed elemental transmutations.
Furthermore, it is suggested that such processes may occur within the hot and compressed hydrogenous, carbonaceous iron in the mantle-core of the earth for both terrestrial fusion and fission nuclear reactions. Hydrogen has been shown to form stable phases with hcp iron at high pressures with dramatic alteration of the magnetism of the iron .
In this paper, results are presented from such experiments on magnetized hot hydrogenated graphene-iron composites that test for the occurrence and enhancement of reverse beta processes in the composite.
This previously proposed model was tested using a similar system that has been used to show diamond nucleation and growth (also an internal terrestrial process) from catalyzed carbon black at atmospheric pressure and high temperatures (920 C) with Fe catalyst and a hydrogenous atmosphere in strong static magnetic field of 17 Tesla . Such low energy nuclear reactions were explored by strongly magnetizing Fe, carbon black, hydrogen gas at 920 C.
Reginald B. Little
The Little LENR Patent
“Magnitites Pycnonuclear Reactions within Electrochemical, Radioactive
and Electromagnetic Medias” Filed Apr 25, 2006 - Published May 22, 2014
The electrochemically active elements of the transition series include both the third, fourth and fifth d block elements, the lanthanides and the actinides. These transition elements have distinct electrochemistry for driving many chemical reactions, in particular the absorption of large volumes of hydrogen and the formation of various hydrides. In particular, Pd, Th, Ti, Ag, Au and La hydrides exhibit anomalous effects.
The chemical reactions for forming, decomposing and rearranging the bonds of metal hydrides involve large energies. Furthermore these metal hydrides and mixtures are here demonstrated to exhibit greater strange cold nuclear reactions both cold fission and cold fusion. This invention provides magnetic, x-ray, laser irradiation, pressure, neutron beam, beta ray, alpha ray, gamma ray and catalytic technology for accommodating the special conditions for more controlled and accelerated cold nuclear reactions within the dense plasma (pycno) provided by the lattice of these metal hydrides.
Under these conditions, the cold nuclear reactions are controllably enhanced to rates for practical energy sources but the very nonsynergistic nature of these pycnonuclear phenomena diminishes the possibility of runaway or explosive systems.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention involves a method and apparatus for the enhanced and controlled acceleration of cold nuclear phenomena. The present invention has particular applicability in selectively producing cold nuclear phenomena at high yields and reproducibly. It is important to note that based on the different mechanisms of pycnonuclear reactions (relative to thermonuclear reactions) the rates of pycnonuclear processes are intrinsically extremely slow relative to thermonuclear processes. This invention therefore implies no possibility of explosive technology or danger high energy chain reactions for any dangerous devices. This art introduces the possibility that major electric power plants may use giant magnets to enhance the slow nonsynergistic phenomena of pycnonuclear reactions for safe, beneficial and peaceful energy sources to better mankind and civilization. No conceivable weapons can be developed from this art.
This art makes use of large power facilities of similar size and construction as current coal burning, hydroelectric and fission facilities for using the electricity from these facilities to create strong magnetic fields for affecting electrocatalytic low temperature nuclear reactions.
The invention provides a means of using external magnetic fields of intense static and dynamic durations, spatial and temporal natures to enhance, to stabilize, and to accumulate energy, and to correlate the properties of dense lattice plasma of transition metal hydrides for the more enhanced rates of cold nuclear reactions within the lattice plasma. The invention also makes use of x-ray and free electron laser technology in an innovative way by (for the first time) using the laser photons to rapidly heat and excite the metal electrodes for more efficient catalyzed activation for core electron excitation and fixation to important high spin (hybrid) transition metal hydride intermediary states for the stimulated, selective electrochemical activation of nuclear reactions to produce massive amounts of energy.
The excited core electrons and protons within the metal hydride lattices are spin flipped by the external strong magnetic field to stabilize higher densities of high spin excited core atomic states.
This invention further exploits x-ray, beta ray, alpha ray and gamma ray technology to drive plasmons, magnons, excitons and phonons in catalyst for the controlled metal interactions for facile hydride absorption, diffusion and condensation into deuterium and tritium; electron capture and/or expulsion by the nucleus (of other atoms); proton capture and/or expulsion from the nucleus (of other atoms); deuteron capture and/or expulsion from the nucleus (of other atoms); neutron absorption and/or expulsion from the nucleus of other atoms.
This new art makes further use of high pressure technology to enhance these events for greater conditions for pycnonuclear reactions within the plasma of the metal hydride. The new art’s use of laser and magnetic phenomena to generate high density of high spin core electronic states and species leads to accelerated nuclear phenomena within the atomic scale electric fields and it leads to enhanced the correlated interactions within the intense static and dynamic electric and magnetic fields. The new art also makes use of extreme nonequilibrium conditions in the conductive coils (Ag, Fe Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, ect . . . ) of strong DC magnets for generating these excited high spin core states of the transition metal for catalyzing nuclear reactions. The magnetic field moulds the Universe. Here the strong magnetic field is used to organize and stabilize multi excited, high spin core electronic states in order to link electronic dynamics to the nucleus and its nucleon dynamics for nucleosynthesis and generating huge sources of energy controllibly.
Field of Invention
In this work, Little expands on the suggestions of Pons and Fleischmann by demonstrating that even greater collective activity can be generated by much higher, excited high spin core states of the metal lattice. Little introduces spin and magnetics of high energy high spin core states for providing the extreme energetic conditions and magnetic spin environment for catalyzing nuclear transmutation at low temperature. On this basis, the prior work of Pons and Fleischmann and other investigators is explained by sporadic excitation of electrons with the inherent paramagnetism of the lattice stabilizing the excited states for very rare fusion events of hydrogen and electrons. In this new art expressed here strong external magnetic fields are demonstrated to better organize the metal lattice with the electrons and absorbed hydrogen for more efficient fusion and fission processes.
The mechanism of low temperature fusion within the metal lattices is based on the Little Effect. The Little Effect is spin induced orbital rehybridization and dynamics within a high spin polarized systems with sufficient thermal activation. On the basis of the Little Effect, valence excitation builds up huge Coulomb fields under antisymmetry within the external magnetic field. This antisymmetry in the strong external magnetic field allows many core electrons to be excited with the development of tremendous local intra-atomic Coulomb fields about metal nuclei within the metal lattice. Electrons and protons receive huge acceleration by such enormous Coulomb fields, especially electrons and protons confined within s orbitals of the metal atoms. Spin induced rehybridization dynamics of sd orbitals confine lattice protons and electrons into s like orbitals. Within the s orbitals, the electrons and protons experience tremendous nuclear coulomb forces for compression for reverse beta processes. These reverse beta processes on the basis of the new art here are accelerated by the external magnetic field in accord with spatial, temporal symmetry properties during weak interacting phenomena as put forth by Yang.
Pons and Fleischmann further note possible electrochemical loading or implantation of particles or photons for cold fusion effects. They note x-ray production during fusion.
In the new art here electromagnetic energy is used to excite core electrons for their intersystem crossing in the strong external magnetic field and stabilization of the resulting population inversion based on antisymmetry. The ability of antisymmetry to stabilize the core electron population inversion is motivated by its influence on florescence for phosphorescence and antisymmetry actually holding up the stars against gravitational collapse.
Fleischmann, Pons, and Preparata (Il Nuovo Cimento 107(1994), p. 143) suggest that the ionization of hydrogen requires strong electric fields to maintain this ionization in the lattice. Helium exists in an atomic state and not ionized. This difference in ionization potential is basis for estimating the range of local electric field strength within the metal lattice. Electric fields greater than 30 ev/A but less than 140 eV/A create holes or wells for protons from hydrogen. They reconcile the existence of deep well and facile motion of proton. They suggest that the existence of large clusters of H atoms or regions of ordered arrays of hydrogen in palladium. They determine that the collective, many-body phenomena arise from these arrays for cold fusion bursts. Holes from plasma electrons localized yet tightly bind to nuclei, localization requires the creation of lattice holes. They suggest that oscillation of d electrons generate the holes and wells. Here the Little effect determines greater oscillations of d electrons even by rehybridization dynamics of sd hybrid phenomena. The trapped hydrogen can be excited for escape and hole mobility. This explains both trapping and mobility of holes. Superradiance is a collective activity of electron and protons in the lattice. Hydrogen wave function and the electron wave function overlap for superraddiance coherent electromagnetic field. They suggest that the bosonic nature of deuteron versus fermion nature of hydrogen and tritium are important for accounting for differences in behaviors. They attempt to organize cold fusion events on the basis of superradiance. Overcoming the coulomb potential and asymptotic freedom is important for accounting for cold nuclear fusion. 10 fm separation is needed for fusion. Tunnelling would involve long distances through the coulomb barrier. There is a different manner of fusion in cold multibody vs hot two body. Unpredictablity follows from fusion rate dependence upon loading ratio, variability of phenomena, and burst in tritium and neutrons support this multibody effect. They determine that the coulomb screening of 100 eV is comparible to the hole depth. So the electron plasma creates hole depth and the hole depth are similar in energy to the coulomb barrier. Then electrons screen the coulomb barrier between the deuterons. Fleischmann and Pons suggest that a mechanism involving either neutral (neutron) or screened processes to avoid coulomb repulsion is impossible unless the mechanism show how shell neutrons are produced from deuterium in the lattice, or electrons can stick to deuterons at distances as small as a few 100 fm. They suggest that cold fusion involves phenomena that violate asymptotic freedom. They consider that nuclear events occur in the space time 10−12 cm to 10−21 seconds compared to electronic 10−8 cm to 10−15 seconds. It is important to note that based on superraddiance, deuterons and electrons of the plasma violate principles of asymptotic freedom. Helium production without gamma emission requires very fast transfer of energy to the lattice.
Dr. Little’s reflections on hydrogen (an hydride [H-]) absorbed into orbital of a nanocrystal of a metal and his LENR patent were captured in a recent E Cat World article:
“Documents Referencing Hydrogen Absorption into Orbital of a Nanocrystal of a Metal (R. Little)“ September 6, 2015 by Frank Acland
1. First Discovery, Prediction and Explanation of Magnetic Ordering in Carbon Nanostructures (2000).
2. Discovery and Determination of the First Comprehensive Mechanism of Carbon Nanotube Formation on the Basis of Dynamic Magnetic Phenomena and Spin Density Waves during Bond Rearrangements (2000).
3. Prediction and Discovery of Diamond Formation during Carbon Bond Rearrangements in Strong Static External Magnetic Field (2000).
4. Discovery and Prediction of the Catalytic Formation of Graphene on Transition Metal Catalysts (2000).
5. Correct Discovery, Prediction, Explanation, and Illustration of the Physicochemical Synthesis of Free-Standing Single Layer Graphene in Plasma of Electric Arc and Laser Plumes (2002).
6. Discovery and Observation of the Nucleation of Diamond in Strong Static Magnetic Fields (>15 Teslas) without High Pressures and High Temperatures and without Hydrogen Plasma (2003).
7. Discovery and Determination of the Resolution of the Diamond Problem after More Than 200 Years (2004).
8. Discovery of New Physico-Chemical Phenomena for Understanding Chemical Reaction Dynamics under Extreme Conditions Involving Multi-Spin Induced Orbital Symmetry Breakage and Non-Preservation of Orbital Symmetry: the Little Effect (2000).
9. First Discovery, Prediction and Experimentally Observation of Coulomb Screening for Inverse Beta Processes and Nuclear Reactions in Hydrogeneous Graphene-Iron (2005).
10. Discovery and Determination of the Ferrochemistry of Structures, Properties, Dynamics, Reactivities and Enzymatics of Biomolecules (2007).
The Patent List
Contemporary LENR Technology Patents - Popularly Known as Cold Fusion
Here are a few other patents that utilize Pd and Rh in the LENR nuclear reactive environment.
“Nuclide transmutation device and nuclide transmutation method”
Grant - Filed Oct 30, 2001 - Issued Dec 4, 2013 - Yasuhiro Iwamura -
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. ... is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium ... Cs-137, and useful platinum group elements such as Rh and Pd are ...
“Reactor for energy generation through low energy nuclear reactions
(lenr) between hydrogen and transition metals and related method of
energy generation” App. - Filed Feb 25, 2013 - Published Sep 19, 2013 - Ubaldo Mastromatteo - Stmicroelectronics S.R.L.
Taking into account that the energy produced in the LENR nuclear ....
Rh, Ag, Cd, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, lantanoids, actinides,
and an alloy ... palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), tungsten (W), titanium
(Ti), iron (Fe), cobalt ...
“Method and apparatus for generating energy by nuclear reactions of
hydrogen adsorbed by orbital capture on a nanocrystalline structure of
a metal” App. - Filed Apr 26, 2012 - Published Mar 5, 2014 - Francesco
Piantelli - Piantelli, Silvia The useful metals, as described in WO2010058288, may be Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn,
“Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor”
App. - Filed Nov 24, 2009 - Published Oct 13, 2011 - Francesco
Piantelli - Silvia Piantelli ... Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Pd, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, ...... 2014, Lenr Cars Sa, Low energy nuclear
thermoelectric system ...
An analysis of the recent Naval Research Lab presentation.
“Critical conditions needed for LENR aka Cold Fusion” October 07, 2015