The World Nuclear Association Fusion and LENR Updated October 2014

LENR wasn't on their website early last year, now it is. "LENR experiments involve hydrogen or deuterium permeation through a catalytic layer and reaction with a metal. Energy is released. The main practical example is hydrogen plus nickel powder giving more heat than can be explained on any chemical basis." This was updated in October 2014, just after the LENR Lugano report. "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" October 6, 2014.

World Nuclear Association is registered in England and Wales.

Nuclear Fusion Power

Fusion power offers the prospect of an almost inexhaustible source of energy for future generations, but it also presents so far insurmountable scientific and engineering challenges.

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The main hope is centred on tokamak reactors which confine a deuterium-tritium plasma magnetically.

Today, many countries take part in fusion research to some extent, led by the European Union, the USA, Russia and Japan, with vigorous programs also underway in China, Brazil, Canada, and Korea. Initially, fusion research in the USA and USSR was linked to atomic weapons development, and it remained classified until the 1958 Atoms for Peace conference in Geneva. Following a breakthrough at the Soviet tokamak, fusion research became 'big science' in the 1970s. But the cost and complexity of the devices involved increased to the point where international co-operation was the only way forward.

Fusion powers the Sun and stars as hydrogen atoms fuse together to form helium, and matter is converted into energy. Hydrogen, heated to very high temperatures changes from a gas to a plasma in which the negatively-charged electrons are separated from the positively-charged atomic nuclei (ions). Normally, fusion is not possible because the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei prevent them from getting close enough together to collide and for fusion to occur. However, if the conditions are such that the nuclei can overcome the electrostatic forces to the extent that they can come within a very close range of each other, then the attractive nuclear force (which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) between the nuclei will outweigh the repulsive (electrostatic) force, allowing the nuclei to fuse together. Such conditions can occur when the temperature increases, causing the ions to move faster and eventually reach speeds high enough to bring the ions close enough together. The nuclei can then fuse, causing a release of energy.

Cold fusion

In March 1989, spectacular claims were made for another approach, when two researchers, in the USA (Stanley Pons) and the UK (Martin Fleischmann), claimed to have achieved fusion in a simple tabletop apparatus working at room temperature. 'N-Fusion', or 'cold fusion', involves the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium electrodes on which deuterium nuclei are said to concentrate at very high densities. The researchers claimed that heat – which could only be explained in terms of nuclear processes – was produced, as well as fusion byproducts, including helium, tritium and neutrons. Other experimenters failed to replicate this, however, and most of the scientific community no longer considers it a real phenomenon.

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Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR)

Initiated by claims for 'cold fusion', research is continuing on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) which have some empirical support but no accepted scientific explanation as yet. LENRs apparently use weak nuclear interactions (rather than strong force as in nuclear fission or fusion) to create neutrons, followed by neutron capture processes. LENR experiments involve hydrogen or deuterium permeation through a catalytic layer and reaction with a metal. Energy is released. The main practical example is hydrogen plus nickel powder giving more heat than can be explained on any chemical basis.

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"1958: False Starts For Aviation's Atomic Age" Oct 14, 2014

by Guy Norris in From The Archives

Aviation Week itself caused a stir in the nuclear propulsion field when it reported in its Dec 1, 1958, edition on flight tests of what appeared to be a Soviet nuclear-powered aircraft. The report, on what later emerged to be an elaborate hoax, led to concerns that the U.S.S.R was pulling ahead of the U.S. and helped to extend funding in nuclear aircraft research for a few more years. The feature also contained a very detailed timeline of associated nuclear aircraft plans in the U.S. and foreshadowed actual flights of a modified Tupolev Tu-95 equipped with a reactor in the early 1960s. The Soviet research in nuclear-powered aircraft, like that in the U.S., effectively ended within a few years as ICBM's rendered the concept obsolete.

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Soviets Flight Testing Nuclear Bomber, December 1, 1958 Aviation Week & Space Technology

The final death knell for the U.S. program was sounded in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy who ended the ANP by stating "15 years and about $1 billion have been devoted to the attempted development of a nuclear-powered aircraft; but the possibility of achieving a militarily useful aircraft in the foreseeable future is still very remote."

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While several lower-level research efforts into nuclear-powered missiles and UAVs have been made right up to the 2000s, none have made it beyond the early experimental or concept stage. The bottom line for all these projects has been that, despite vast improvements in reactor technology, fission-based nuclear propulsion cycles remain heavy, complex and inefficient.

The question now is, with the possible dawn of a viable, modular fusion capability, is the new atomic age for aviation finally on the horizon?

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"NASA LENR Aircraft and Spaceplanes"

Boeing Turbine powered by a non-radioactive low energy nuclear reactor (LENR)

"Rotational annular airscrew with integrated acoustic arrester" CA 2824290 A1, Assignee: The Boeing Company, Matthew D. Moore, Kelly L. Boren, Publication date : May 12, 2014, Priority date: Nov 12, 2012

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ABSTRACT

A propulsion system and methods are presented. A substantially tubular structure comprises a central axis through a longitudinal geometric center, and a first fan rotates around the central axis, and comprises a first fan hub and first fan blades.

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[0048] The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor are coupled to at least one energy source. The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor may be directly coupled to the at least one energy source, or through various control and/or power distribution circuits. The energy source may comprise, for example, a system to convert chemical, solar or nuclear energy into electricity within or coupled to a volume bearing structure. The energy source may comprise, for example but without limitation, a battery, a fuel cell, a solar cell, an energy harvesting device, low energy nuclear reactor (LENR), a hybrid propulsion system, or other energy source.

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